football

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Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball to score a goal. Unqualified, the word football normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called football include association football (known as soccer in some countries); gridiron football (specifically American football or Canadian football); Australian rules football; rugby football (either rugby union or rugby league); and Gaelic football. These various forms of football share to varying extent common origins and are known as football codes.

There are a number of references to traditional, ancient, or prehistoric ball games played in many different parts of the world. Contemporary codes of football can be traced back to the codification of these games at English public schools during the 19th century. The expansion and cultural influence of the British Empire allowed these rules of football to spread to areas of British influence outside the directly controlled Empire. By the end of the 19th century, distinct regional codes were already developing: Gaelic football, for example, deliberately incorporated the rules of local traditional football games in order to maintain their heritage. In 1888, The Football League was founded in England, becoming the first of many professional football competitions. During the 20th century, several of the various kinds of football grew to become some of the most popular team sports in the world.

The various codes of football share certain common elements and can be grouped into two main classes of football: carrying codes like American football, Canadian football, Australian football, rugby union and rugby league, where the ball is moved about the field while being held in the hands or thrown, and kicking codes such as Association football and Gaelic football, where the ball is moved primarily with the feet, and where handling is strictly limited.

Common rules among the sports include:

In all codes, common skills include passing, tackling, evasion of tackles, catching and kicking. In most codes, there are rules restricting the movement of players offside, and players scoring a goal must put the ball either under or over a crossbar between the goalposts.

There are conflicting explanations of the origin of the word "football". It is widely assumed that the word "football" (or the phrase "foot ball") refers to the action of the foot kicking a ball. There is an alternative explanation, which is that football originally referred to a variety of games in medieval Europe, which were played on foot. There is no conclusive evidence for either explanation.

The Chinese competitive game cuju (蹴鞠) resembles modern association football (soccer), descriptions appear in a military manual dated to the second and third centuries BC. It existed during the Han dynasty and possibly the Qin dynasty, in the second and third centuries BC. The Japanese version of cuju is kemari (蹴鞠), and was developed during the Asuka period. This is known to have been played within the Japanese imperial court in Kyoto from about 600 AD. In kemari several people stand in a circle and kick a ball to each other, trying not to let the ball drop to the ground (much like keepie uppie).

The Ancient Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet. The Roman game harpastum is believed to have been adapted from a Greek team game known as "ἐπίσκυρος" (Episkyros) or "φαινίνδα" (phaininda), which is mentioned by a Greek playwright, Antiphanes (388–311 BC) and later referred to by the Christian theologian Clement of Alexandria (c. 150 – c. 215 AD). These games appear to have resembled rugby football. The Roman politician Cicero (106–43 BC) describes the case of a man who was killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barber's shop. Roman ball games already knew the air-filled ball, the follis. Episkyros is recognised as an early form of football by FIFA.

There are a number of references to traditional, ancient, or prehistoric ball games, played by indigenous peoples in many different parts of the world. For example, in 1586, men from a ship commanded by an English explorer named John Davis, went ashore to play a form of football with Inuit (Eskimo) people in Greenland. There are later accounts of an Inuit game played on ice, called Aqsaqtuk. Each match began with two teams facing each other in parallel lines, before attempting to kick the ball through each other team's line and then at a goal. In 1610, William Strachey, a colonist at Jamestown, Virginia recorded a game played by Native Americans, called Pahsaheman.[citation needed] Pasuckuakohowog, a game similar to modern-day association football played amongst Amerindians, was also reported as early as the 17th century.

Games played in Mesoamerica with rubber balls by indigenous peoples are also well-documented as existing since before this time, but these had more similarities to basketball or volleyball, and no links have been found between such games and modern football sports. Northeastern American Indians, especially the Iroquois Confederation, played a game which made use of net racquets to throw and catch a small ball; however, although it is a ball-goal foot game, lacrosse (as its modern descendant is called) is likewise not usually classed as a form of "football."[citation needed]

On the Australian continent several tribes of indigenous people played kicking and catching games with stuffed balls which have been generalised by historians as Marn Grook (Djab Wurrung for "game ball"). The earliest historical account is an anecdote from the 1878 book by Robert Brough-Smyth, The Aborigines of Victoria, in which a man called Richard Thomas is quoted as saying, in about 1841 in Victoria, Australia, that he had witnessed Aboriginal people playing the game: "Mr Thomas describes how the foremost player will drop kick a ball made from the skin of a possum and how other players leap into the air in order to catch it." Some historians have theorised that Marn Grook was one of the origins of Australian rules football.

The Māori in New Zealand played a game called Ki-o-rahi consisting of teams of seven players play on a circular field divided into zones, and score points by touching the 'pou' (boundary markers) and hitting a central 'tupu' or target.[citation needed]

These games and others may well go far back into antiquity. However, the main sources of modern football codes appear to lie in western Europe, especially England.

Mahmud al-Kashgari in his Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk, described a game called "tepuk" among Turks in Central Asia. In the game, people try to attack each other's castle by kicking a ball made of sheep leather.

Ancient Greek athlete balancing a ball on his thigh, Piraeus, 400-375 BC

A Song dynasty painting by Su Hanchen (c. 1130-1160), depicting Chinese children playing cuju

Paint of a Mesoamerican ballgame player of the Tepantitla murals in Teotihuacan

A group of indigenous people playing a ball game in French Guiana

An illustration from the 1850s of indigenous Australians playing marn grook

A revived version of kemari being played at the Tanzan Shrine, Japan, 2006

The Middle Ages saw a huge rise in popularity of annual Shrovetide football matches throughout Europe, particularly in England. An early reference to a ball game played in Britain comes from the 9th century Historia Brittonum, which describes "a party of boys ... playing at ball". References to a ball game played in northern France known as La Soule or Choule, in which the ball was propelled by hands, feet, and sticks, date from the 12th century.

The early forms of football played in England, sometimes referred to as "mob football", would be played in towns or between neighbouring villages, involving an unlimited number of players on opposing teams who would clash en masse, struggling to move an item, such as inflated animal's bladder to particular geographical points, such as their opponents' church, with play taking place in the open space between neighbouring parishes. The game was played primarily during significant religious festivals, such as Shrovetide, Christmas, or Easter, and Shrovetide games have survived into the modern era in a number of English towns (see below).

The first detailed description of what was almost certainly football in England was given by William FitzStephen in about 1174–1183. He described the activities of London youths during the annual festival of Shrove Tuesday:

After lunch all the youth of the city go out into the fields to take part in a ball game. The students of each school have their own ball; the workers from each city craft are also carrying their balls. Older citizens, fathers, and wealthy citizens come on horseback to watch their juniors competing, and to relive their own youth vicariously: you can see their inner passions aroused as they watch the action and get caught up in the fun being had by the carefree adolescents.

Most of the very early references to the game speak simply of "ball play" or "playing at ball". This reinforces the idea that the games played at the time did not necessarily involve a ball being kicked.

An early reference to a ball game that was probably football comes from 1280 at Ulgham, Northumberland, England: "Henry... while playing at ball.. ran against David". Football was played in Ireland in 1308, with a documented reference to John McCrocan, a spectator at a "football game" at Newcastle, County Down being charged with accidentally stabbing a player named William Bernard. Another reference to a football game comes in 1321 at Shouldham, Norfolk, England: "[d]uring the game at ball as he kicked the ball, a lay friend of his... ran against him and wounded himself".

In 1314, Nicholas de Farndone, Lord Mayor of the City of London issued a decree banning football in the French used by the English upper classes at the time. A translation reads: "[f]orasmuch as there is great noise in the city caused by hustling over large foot balls [rageries de grosses pelotes de pee] in the fields of the public from which many evils might arise which God forbid: we command and forbid on behalf of the king, on pain of imprisonment, such game to be used in the city in the future." This is the earliest reference to football.

In 1363, King Edward III of England issued a proclamation banning "...handball, football, or hockey; coursing and cock-fighting, or other such idle games", showing that "football" – whatever its exact form in this case – was being differentiated from games involving other parts of the body, such as handball.

A game known as "football" was played in Scotland as early as the 15th century: it was prohibited by the Football Act 1424 and although the law fell into disuse it was not repealed until 1906. There is evidence for schoolboys playing a "football" ball game in Aberdeen in 1633 (some references cite 1636) which is notable as an early allusion to what some have considered to be passing the ball. The word "pass" in the most recent translation is derived from "huc percute" (strike it here) and later "repercute pilam" (strike the ball again) in the original Latin. It is not certain that the ball was being struck between members of the same team. The original word translated as "goal" is "metum", literally meaning the "pillar at each end of the circus course" in a Roman chariot race. There is a reference to "get hold of the ball before [another player] does" (Praeripe illi pilam si possis agere) suggesting that handling of the ball was allowed. One sentence states in the original 1930 translation "Throw yourself against him" (Age, objice te illi).

King Henry IV of England also presented one of the earliest documented uses of the English word "football", in 1409, when he issued a proclamation forbidding the levying of money for "foteball".

There is also an account in Latin from the end of the 15th century of football being played at Caunton, Nottinghamshire. This is the first description of a "kicking game" and the first description of dribbling: "[t]he game at which they had met for common recreation is called by some the foot-ball game. It is one in which young men, in country sport, propel a huge ball not by throwing it into the air but by striking it and rolling it along the ground, and that not with their hands but with their feet... kicking in opposite directions" The chronicler gives the earliest reference to a football pitch, stating that: "[t]he boundaries have been marked and the game had started.

Other firsts in the medieval and early modern eras:

In the 16th century, the city of Florence celebrated the period between Epiphany and Lent by playing a game which today is known as "calcio storico" ("historic kickball") in the Piazza Santa Croce. The young aristocrats of the city would dress up in fine silk costumes and embroil themselves in a violent form of football. For example, calcio players could punch, shoulder charge, and kick opponents. Blows below the belt were allowed. The game is said to have originated as a military training exercise. In 1580, Count Giovanni de' Bardi di Vernio wrote Discorso sopra 'l giuoco del Calcio Fiorentino. This is sometimes said to be the earliest code of rules for any football game. The game was not played after January 1739 (until it was revived in May 1930).

There have been many attempts to ban football, from the middle ages through to the modern day. The first such law was passed in England in 1314; it was followed by more than 30 in England alone between 1314 and 1667.:6 Women were banned from playing at English and Scottish Football League grounds in 1921, a ban that was only lifted in the 1970s. Female footballers still face similar problems in some parts of the world.

American football also faced pressures to ban the sport. The game played in the 19th century resembled mob football that developed in medieval Europe, including a version popular on university campuses known as Old division football, and several municipalities banned its play in the mid-19th century. By the 20th century, the game had evolved to a more rugby style game. In 1905, there were calls to ban American football in the U.S. due to its violence; a meeting that year was hosted by American president Theodore Roosevelt led to sweeping rules changes that caused the sport to diverge significantly from its rugby roots to become more like the sport as it is played today.

While football continued to be played in various forms throughout Britain, its public schools (equivalent to private schools in other countries) are widely credited with four key achievements in the creation of modern football codes. First of all, the evidence suggests that they were important in taking football away from its "mob" form and turning it into an organised team sport. Second, many early descriptions of football and references to it were recorded by people who had studied at these schools. Third, it was teachers, students, and former students from these schools who first codified football games, to enable matches to be played between schools. Finally, it was at English public schools that the division between "kicking" and "running" (or "carrying") games first became clear.

The earliest evidence that games resembling football were being played at English public schools – mainly attended by boys from the upper, upper-middle and professional classes – comes from the Vulgaria by William Herman in 1519. Herman had been headmaster at Eton and Winchester colleges and his Latin textbook includes a translation exercise with the phrase "We wyll playe with a ball full of wynde".

Richard Mulcaster, a student at Eton College in the early 16th century and later headmaster at other English schools, has been described as "the greatest sixteenth Century advocate of football". Among his contributions are the earliest evidence of organised team football. Mulcaster's writings refer to teams ("sides" and "parties"), positions ("standings"), a referee ("judge over the parties") and a coach "(trayning maister)". Mulcaster's "footeball" had evolved from the disordered and violent forms of traditional football:

[s]ome smaller number with such overlooking, sorted into sides and standings, not meeting with their bodies so boisterously to trie their strength: nor shouldring or shuffing one an other so barbarously ... may use footeball for as much good to the body, by the chiefe use of the legges.

In 1633, David Wedderburn, a teacher from Aberdeen, mentioned elements of modern football games in a short Latin textbook called Vocabula. Wedderburn refers to what has been translated into modern English as "keeping goal" and makes an allusion to passing the ball ("strike it here"). There is a reference to "get hold of the ball", suggesting that some handling was allowed. It is clear that the tackles allowed included the charging and holding of opposing players ("drive that man back").

A more detailed description of football is given in Francis Willughby's Book of Games, written in about 1660. Willughby, who had studied at Bishop Vesey's Grammar School, Sutton Coldfield, is the first to describe goals and a distinct playing field: "a close that has a gate at either end. The gates are called Goals." His book includes a diagram illustrating a football field. He also mentions tactics ("leaving some of their best players to guard the goal"); scoring ("they that can strike the ball through their opponents' goal first win") and the way teams were selected ("the players being equally divided according to their strength and nimbleness"). He is the first to describe a "law" of football: "they must not strike [an opponent's leg] higher than the ball".

English public schools were the first to codify football games. In particular, they devised the first offside rules, during the late 18th century. In the earliest manifestations of these rules, players were "off their side" if they simply stood between the ball and the goal which was their objective. Players were not allowed to pass the ball forward, either by foot or by hand. They could only dribble with their feet, or advance the ball in a scrum or similar formation. However, offside laws began to diverge and develop differently at each school, as is shown by the rules of football from Winchester, Rugby, Harrow and Cheltenham, during between 1810 and 1850. The first known codes – in the sense of a set of rules – were those of Eton in 1815 and Aldenham in 1825.)

During the early 19th century, most working class people in Britain had to work six days a week, often for over twelve hours a day. They had neither the time nor the inclination to engage in sport for recreation and, at the time, many children were part of the labour force. Feast day football played on the streets was in decline. Public school boys, who enjoyed some freedom from work, became the inventors of organised football games with formal codes of rules.

Football was adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit. Each school drafted its own rules, which varied widely between different schools and were changed over time with each new intake of pupils. Two schools of thought developed regarding rules. Some schools favoured a game in which the ball could be carried (as at Rugby, Marlborough and Cheltenham), while others preferred a game where kicking and dribbling the ball was promoted (as at Eton, Harrow, Westminster and Charterhouse). The division into these two camps was partly the result of circumstances in which the games were played. For example, Charterhouse and Westminster at the time had restricted playing areas; the boys were confined to playing their ball game within the school cloisters, making it difficult for them to adopt rough and tumble running games.[citation needed]

William Webb Ellis, a pupil at Rugby School, is said to have "with a fine disregard for the rules of football, as played in his time [emphasis added], first took the ball in his arms and ran with it, thus creating the distinctive feature of the rugby game." in 1823. This act is usually said to be the beginning of Rugby football, but there is little evidence that it occurred, and most sports historians believe the story to be apocryphal. The act of 'taking the ball in his arms' is often misinterpreted as 'picking the ball up' as it is widely believed that Webb Ellis' 'crime' was handling the ball, as in modern association football, however handling the ball at the time was often permitted and in some cases compulsory, the rule for which Webb Ellis showed disregard was running forward with it as the rules of his time only allowed a player to retreat backwards or kick forwards.

The boom in rail transport in Britain during the 1840s meant that people were able to travel further and with less inconvenience than they ever had before. Inter-school sporting competitions became possible. However, it was difficult for schools to play each other at football, as each school played by its own rules. The solution to this problem was usually that the match be divided into two halves, one half played by the rules of the host "home" school, and the other half by the visiting "away" school.

The modern rules of many football codes were formulated during the mid- or late- 19th century. This also applies to other sports such as lawn bowls, lawn tennis, etc. The major impetus for this was the patenting of the world's first lawnmower in 1830. This allowed for the preparation of modern ovals, playing fields, pitches, grass courts, etc.

Apart from Rugby football, the public school codes have barely been played beyond the confines of each school's playing fields. However, many of them are still played at the schools which created them (see Surviving UK school games below).

Public schools' dominance of sports in the UK began to wane after the Factory Act of 1850, which significantly increased the recreation time available to working class children. Before 1850, many British children had to work six days a week, for more than twelve hours a day. From 1850, they could not work before 6 a.m. (7 a.m. in winter) or after 6 p.m. on weekdays (7 p.m. in winter); on Saturdays they had to cease work at 2 p.m. These changes meant that working class children had more time for games, including various forms of football.

The earliest known matches between public schools are as follows:

Sports clubs dedicated to playing football began in the 18th century, for example London's Gymnastic Society which was founded in the mid-18th century and ceased playing matches in 1796.

The first documented club to bear in the title a reference to being a 'football club' were called "The Foot-Ball Club" who were located in Edinburgh, Scotland, during the period 1824–41. The club forbade tripping but allowed pushing and holding and the picking up of the ball.

In 1845, three boys at Rugby school were tasked with codifying the rules then being used at the school. These were the first set of written rules (or code) for any form of football. This further assisted the spread of the Rugby game.

The earliest known matches involving non-public school clubs or institutions are as follows:

One of the longest running football fixture is the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, contested between Melbourne Grammar School and Scotch College, Melbourne every year since 1858. It is believed by many to also be the first match of Australian rules football, although it was played under experimental rules in its first year. The first football trophy tournament was the Caledonian Challenge Cup, donated by the Royal Caledonian Society of Melbourne, played in 1861 under the Melbourne Rules. The oldest football league is a rugby football competition, the United Hospitals Challenge Cup (1874), while the oldest rugby trophy is the Yorkshire Cup, contested since 1878. The South Australian Football Association (30 April 1877) is the oldest surviving Australian rules football competition. The oldest surviving soccer trophy is the Youdan Cup (1867) and the oldest national football competition is the English FA Cup (1871). The Football League (1888) is recognised as the longest running Association Football league. The first ever international football match took place between sides representing England and Scotland on 5 March 1870 at the Oval under the authority of the FA. The first Rugby international took place in 1871.

In Europe, early footballs were made out of animal bladders, more specifically pig's bladders, which were inflated. Later leather coverings were introduced to allow the balls to keep their shape. However, in 1851, Richard Lindon and William Gilbert, both shoemakers from the town of Rugby (near the school), exhibited both round and oval-shaped balls at the Great Exhibition in London. Richard Lindon's wife is said to have died of lung disease caused by blowing up pig's bladders. Lindon also won medals for the invention of the "Rubber inflatable Bladder" and the "Brass Hand Pump".

In 1855, the U.S. inventor Charles Goodyear – who had patented vulcanised rubber – exhibited a spherical football, with an exterior of vulcanised rubber panels, at the Paris Exhibition Universelle. The ball was to prove popular in early forms of football in the U.S.

The iconic ball with a regular pattern of hexagons and pentagons (see truncated icosahedron) did not become popular until the 1960s, and was first used in the World Cup in 1970.

The earliest reference to a game of football involving players passing the ball and attempting to score past a goalkeeper was written in 1633 by David Wedderburn, a poet and teacher in Aberdeen, Scotland. Nevertheless, the original text does not state whether the allusion to passing as 'kick the ball back' ('Repercute pilam') was in a forward or backward direction or between members of the same opposing teams (as was usual at this time)

"Scientific" football is first recorded in 1839 from Lancashire and in the modern game in Rugby football from 1862 and from Sheffield FC as early as 1865. The first side to play a passing combination game was the Royal Engineers AFC in 1869/70 By 1869 they were "work[ing] well together", "backing up" and benefiting from "cooperation". By 1870 the Engineers were passing the ball: "Lieut. Creswell, who having brought the ball up the side then kicked it into the middle to another of his side, who kicked it through the posts the minute before time was called". Passing was a regular feature of their style. By early 1872 the Engineers were the first football team renowned for "play[ing] beautifully together". A double pass is first reported from Derby school against Nottingham Forest in March 1872, the first of which is irrefutably a short pass: "Mr Absey dribbling the ball half the length of the field delivered it to Wallis, who kicking it cleverly in front of the goal, sent it to the captain who drove it at once between the Nottingham posts". The first side to have perfected the modern formation was Cambridge University AFC and introduced the 2–3–5 "pyramid" formation.

During the nineteenth century, several codifications of the rules of football were made at the University of Cambridge, in order to enable students from different public schools to play each other. The Cambridge Rules of 1863 influenced the decision of Football Association to ban Rugby-style carrying of the ball in its own first set of laws.

By the late 1850s, many football clubs had been formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various codes of football. Sheffield Football Club, founded in 1857 in the English city of Sheffield by Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, was later recognised as the world's oldest club playing association football. However, the club initially played its own code of football: the Sheffield rules. The code was largely independent of the public school rules, the most significant difference being the lack of an offside rule.

The code was responsible for many innovations that later spread to association football. These included free kicks, corner kicks, handball, throw-ins and the crossbar. By the 1870s they became the dominant code in the north and midlands of England. At this time a series of rule changes by both the London and Sheffield FAs gradually eroded the differences between the two games until the adoption of a common code in 1877.

There is archival evidence of "foot-ball" games being played in various parts of Australia throughout the first half of the 19th century. The origins of an organised game of football known today as Australian rules football can be traced back to 1858 in Melbourne, the capital city of Victoria.

In July 1858, Tom Wills, an Australian-born cricketer educated at Rugby School in England, wrote a letter to Bell's Life in Victoria & Sporting Chronicle, calling for a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter. This is considered by historians to be a defining moment in the creation of Australian rules football. Through publicity and personal contacts Wills was able to co-ordinate football matches in Melbourne that experimented with various rules, the first of which was played on 31 July 1858. One week later, Wills umpired a schoolboys match between Melbourne Grammar School and Scotch College. Following these matches, organised football in Melbourne rapidly increased in popularity.

Wills and others involved in these early matches formed the Melbourne Football Club (the oldest surviving Australian football club) on 14 May 1859. Club members Wills, William Hammersley, J. B. Thompson and Thomas H. Smith met with the intention of forming a set of rules that would be widely adopted by other clubs. The committee debated rules used in English public school games; Wills pushed for various rugby football rules he learnt during his schooling. The first rules share similarities with these games, and were shaped to suit to Australian conditions. H. C. A. Harrison, a seminal figure in Australian football, recalled that his cousin Wills wanted "a game of our own". The code was distinctive in the prevalence of the mark, free kick, tackling, lack of an offside rule and that players were specifically penalised for throwing the ball.

The Melbourne football rules were widely distributed and gradually adopted by the other Victorian clubs. The rules were updated several times during the 1860s to accommodate the rules of other influential Victorian football clubs. A significant redraft in 1866 by H. C. A. Harrison's committee accommodated the Geelong Football Club's rules, making the game then known as "Victorian Rules" increasingly distinct from other codes. It soon adopted cricket fields and an oval ball, used specialised goal and behind posts, and featured bouncing the ball while running and spectacular high marking. The game spread quickly to other Australian colonies. Outside its heartland in southern Australia, the code experienced a significant period of decline following World War I but has since grown throughout Australia and in other parts of the world, and the Australian Football League emerged as the dominant professional competition.

During the early 1860s, there were increasing attempts in England to unify and reconcile the various public school games. In 1862, J. C. Thring, who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules, was a master at Uppingham School and he issued his own rules of what he called "The Simplest Game" (these are also known as the Uppingham Rules). In early October 1863 another new revised version of the Cambridge Rules was drawn up by a seven member committee representing former pupils from Harrow, Shrewsbury, Eton, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster.

At the Freemasons' Tavern, Great Queen Street, London on the evening of 26 October 1863, representatives of several football clubs in the London Metropolitan area met for the inaugural meeting of The Football Association (FA). The aim of the Association was to establish a single unifying code and regulate the playing of the game among its members. Following the first meeting, the public schools were invited to join the association. All of them declined, except Charterhouse and Uppingham. In total, six meetings of the FA were held between October and December 1863. After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published. However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of 1863. The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely running with (carrying) the ball and hacking (kicking opposing players in the shins). The two contentious FA rules were as follows:

IX. A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch, or catches the ball on the first bound; but in case of a fair catch, if he makes his mark he shall not run.
X. If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, hold, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time.

At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F. M. Campbell, the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected. He said: "hacking is the true football". However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA. After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the "Laws of Football", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football. The term "soccer", in use since the late 19th century, derives from an Oxford University abbreviation of "Association".

The first FA rules still contained elements that are no longer part of association football, but which are still recognisable in other games (such as Australian football and rugby football): for instance, a player could make a fair catch and claim a mark, which entitled him to a free kick; and if a player touched the ball behind the opponents' goal line, his side was entitled to a free kick at goal, from 15 yards (13.5 metres) in front of the goal line.

In Britain, by 1870, there were 49 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game. There were also "rugby" clubs in Ireland, Australia, Canada and New Zealand. However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until 1871, when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union (RFU). The first official RFU rules were adopted in June 1871. These rules allowed passing the ball. They also included the try, where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest.

Rugby football split into Rugby union, Rugby league, American football, and Canadian football. Tom Wills played Rugby football in England before founding Australian rules football.

As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students. For example, students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football, a variant of the association football codes, as early as the 1820s. They remained largely "mob football" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area, often by any means necessary. Rules were simple, violence and injury were common. The violence of these mob-style games led to widespread protests and a decision to abandon them. Yale University, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860, while Harvard University followed suit in 1861. In its place, two general types of football evolved: "kicking" games and "running" (or "carrying") games. A hybrid of the two, known as the "Boston game", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club. The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football club in the United States, was formed in 1862 by schoolboys who played the "Boston game" on Boston Common. The game began to return to American college campuses by the late 1860s. The universities of Yale, Princeton (then known as the College of New Jersey), Rutgers, and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time. In 1867, Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association.

In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on 9 November 1861, at University College, University of Toronto (approximately 400 yards west of Queen's Park). One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was (Sir) William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. In 1864, at Trinity College, Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football. A "running game", resembling rugby football, was then taken up by the Montreal Football Club in Canada in 1868.

On 6 November 1869, Rutgers faced Princeton in a game that was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used improvised rules. It is usually regarded as the first game of American intercollegiate football.

Modern North American football grew out of a match between McGill University of Montreal and Harvard University in 1874. During the game, the two teams alternated between the rugby-based rules used by McGill and the Boston Game rules used by Harvard. Within a few years, Harvard had both adopted McGill's rules and persuaded other U.S. university teams to do the same. On 23 November 1876, representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit Convention in Springfield, Massachusetts, agreeing to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules, with some variations.

In 1880, Yale coach Walter Camp, who had become a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where the rules were debated and changed, devised a number of major innovations. Camp's two most important rule changes that diverged the American game from rugby were replacing the scrummage with the line of scrimmage and the establishment of the down-and-distance rules. American football still however remained a violent sport where collisions often led to serious injuries and sometimes even death. This led U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt to hold a meeting with football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton on 9 October 1905, urging them to make drastic changes. One rule change introduced in 1906, devised to open up the game and reduce injury, was the introduction of the legal forward pass. Though it was underutilised for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.

Over the years, Canada absorbed some of the developments in American football in an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game. In 1903, the Ontario Rugby Football Union adopted the Burnside rules, which implemented the line of scrimmage and down-and-distance system from American football, among others. Canadian football then implemented the legal forward pass in 1929. American and Canadian football remain different codes, stemming from rule changes that the American side of the border adopted but the Canadian side has not.

In the mid-19th century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid, remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry. One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees; and the epic "cross-country game" which took up most of the daylight hours of a Sunday on which it was played, and was won by one team taking the ball across a parish boundary. "Wrestling", "holding" opposing players, and carrying the ball were all allowed.

By the 1870s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby (see the Developments in the 1850s section, above). The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely. Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping.

There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) in 1884. The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football. The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on 7 February 1887. Davin's rules showed the influence of games such as hurling and a desire to formalise a distinctly Irish code of football. The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule (an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football).

The International Rugby Football Board (IRFB) was founded in 1886, but rifts were beginning to emerge in the code. Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football.

In England, by the 1890s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries. This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England. In 1895, following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union (NRFU). The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport.

The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. Within a few years the NRFU rules had started to diverge from the RFU, most notably with the abolition of the line-out. This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled. Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. The separate Lancashire and Yorkshire competitions of the NRFU merged in 1901, forming the Northern Rugby League, the first time the name rugby league was used officially in England.

Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union.

The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures. The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress. It fell to associations from seven other European countries: France, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, to form an international association. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) was founded in Paris on 21 May 1904. Its first president was Robert Guérin. The French name and acronym has remained, even outside French-speaking countries.

Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in 1906, with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players. In 1907, a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year. However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match. This situation endured until 1948, when at the instigation of the French league, the Rugby League International Federation (RLIF) was formed at a meeting in Bordeaux.

During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. In 1966, rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs: a team was allowed to retain possession of the ball for four tackles (rugby union retains the original rule that a player who is tackled and brought to the ground must release the ball immediately). The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six (in 1971), and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule.

With the advent of full-time professionals in the early 1990s, and the consequent speeding up of the game, the five metre off-side distance between the two teams became 10 metres, and the replacement rule was superseded by various interchange rules, among other changes.

The laws of rugby union also changed during the 20th century, although less significantly than those of rugby league. In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul, and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised.

In 1995, rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players. Although the original dispute between the two codes has now disappeared – and despite the fact that officials from both forms of rugby football have sometimes mentioned the possibility of re-unification – the rules of both codes and their culture have diverged to such an extent that such an event is unlikely in the foreseeable future.

The word football, when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above. Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football, primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world. Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region (which is Association football in most countries). So, effectively, what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it.

In each of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, one football code is known solely as "football", while the others generally require a qualifier. In New Zealand, "football" historically referred to rugby union, but more recently may be used unqualified to refer to association football. The sport meant by the word "football" in Australia is either Australian rules football or rugby league, depending on local popularity (which largely conforms to the Barassi Line). In francophone Quebec, where Canadian football is more popular, the Canadian code is known as le football while American football is known as le football américain and association football is known as le soccer.

Of the 45 national FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) affiliates in which English is an official or primary language, most currently use Football in their organisations' official names; the FIFA affiliates in Canada and the United States use Soccer in their names. A few FIFA affiliates have recently "normalised" to using "Football", including:

Several of the football codes are the most popular team sports in the world. Globally, association football is played by over 250 million players in over 200 nations, and has the highest television audience in sport, making it the most popular in the world. American football, with 1.1 million high school football players and nearly 70,000 college football players, is the most popular sport in the United States, with the annual Super Bowl game accounting for nine of the top ten of the most watched broadcasts in U.S. television history. The NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and has the highest revenue out of any single professional sports league. Thus, the best association football and American football players are among the highest paid athletes in the world.

Australian rules football has the highest spectator attendance of all sports in Australia. Similarly, Gaelic football is the most popular sport in Ireland in terms of match attendance, and the All-Ireland Football Final is the most watched event of that nation's sporting year.

Rugby union is the most popular sport in New Zealand, Samoa, Tonga, and Fiji. It is also the fastest growing sport in the U.S. with college rugby being the fastest growing[clarification needed] college sport in that country.[dubious ]

These codes have in common the prohibition of the use of hands (by all players except the goalkeeper, though outfield players can "throw-in" the ball when it goes out of play), unlike other codes where carrying or handling the ball by all players is allowed

The hockey game bandy has rules partly based on the association football rules and is sometimes nicknamed as 'winter football'.

There are also motorsport variations of the game.

These codes have in common the ability of players to carry the ball with their hands, and to throw it to teammates, unlike association football where the use of hands during play is prohibited by anyone except the goal keeper. They also feature various methods of scoring based upon whether the ball is carried into the goal area, or kicked above the goalposts.

These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule, the prohibition of continuous carrying of the ball (requiring a periodic bounce or solo (toe-kick), depending on the code) while running, handpassing by punching or tapping the ball rather than throwing it, and other traditions.

Games still played at UK public (independent) schools:

Note: although similar to football and volleyball in some aspects, Sepak takraw has ancient origins and cannot be considered a hybrid game.

I’m so beyond giving a fuck about football anymore. VAR, our defence, shitty Referee’s, Busquets, Ramos getting goa…
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Which football fan slates a player who scored a goal to secure a draw away at their London rivals with 10 men. It’s…
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I had my research analysts spend the whole week making college football picks for me instead of working, and none o…
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The skycam channel is the best thing that’s ever happened to college football
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#FSU FOOTBALL. #Noles #NoleFamily #KeepCLIMBing 🍢🍢🍢🍢🍢🍢❤️ 💛❤️ 💛 @NolesAndPhins @jhm8806
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Gotta love college football 🏈
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College football today
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Football is engaging in the same way a good movie is, with clearly established storylines branching out into indivi…
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Cecil Hurt caught up with Alabama AD Greg Byrne in the press box before the Missouri game
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For the first time in history, we have basketball, football, baseball and hockey all playing in the same season…
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Colin Kaepernick took a knee in a football game to protest police brutality—he lost his job and faced harsh backlas…
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Our message to football fans around the world... ✊ #UnitedAgainstRacism ✊ #ArsenalForEveryone
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9 - Manchester City have won all nine matches in all competitions in January 2021, the most wins by a team in the t…
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The government saying “now is not the time to learn lessons over Covid” is like a football manager suffering defeat…
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@VantheMan101 @RupertsTower1 @CBobblers1878 @thechicoazul Based on my last go at football management we need to sig…
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RT @prateek_brpl: What Messi gave to Barcelona and football... is priceless❤️💙 @fundacionmessi
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@TheExtraInch cathartic post Liverpool pod. ? of watching during pandemic seems important to address. I'd add that…
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@King05072 We aren't doing all that without CL football tho
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@LM10_Stan @Football__Tweet Why would Messi be on the bench ?
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Gerrard on leaving the past behind, proving himself and Anfield job via @MailOnline
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RT @o_lysenko: Был момент в Ростове. Они проигрывали, Вернблум уже не знал, что делать, и начал показывать мне и Калачу: «Смотрите, у вас у…
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RT @OptaJoe: 9 - Manchester City have won all nine matches in all competitions in January 2021, the most wins by a team in the top four tie…
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Neanche a football manager contano un cazzo!! #Juventus
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RT @Seba_Terry: My football partner says kissing man is gay, but doing all this to my ass is not! 🔥Just for this month, 60% OFF in
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RT @AuschwitzMuseum: 31 January 1944 | Árpád Weisz, a Hungarian Jewish football player, and coach, perished in #Auschwitz. He had been depo…
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Ver#3 đã up, bao ảo tung chảo mọi người ơi!!!😁😁😁
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RT @Venunye7: The only twitter active is football,tech, Marketing/business and maybe politics. There are so many people on this app. From…
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RT @hxrdikkkkk: No amount of money can justify what messi has done for barça and for the sport of football. He's simply priceless. Respect…
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RT @Manekang: Donc la RDC arrivait au Cameroun avec la prétention de gagner le #TotalCHAN2020 🤣 Il ne faut pas trop se moquer du football…
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サッカーもブログも「真似る」ことは大事。 まず上手な人を真似ることで上手な人の「基準」を手に入れること。 基準を知った上で自分のオリジナリティを取り入れていく。 だから「真似をされる人」は本当にすごい人だと感じた日曜日の朝。…
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Looking forward to football being back and being able to socialise! Looking good 👏🏻👏🏻
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RT @BarcaUniversal: Former Barcelona player Ibrahim Affelay has just announced his official retirement from football, at the age of 34. htt…
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RT @JamesNursey: Arsenal set for offers from Spain to take young striker Reiss Nelson on loan. Villarreal & Real Betis interested. Valencia…
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RT @eToroFr: Le #Trading ? C’est accessible et c’est fun ! Un peu comme le #football ⚽️ Et ce sont les joueurs de l’@AS_Monaco qui en tém…
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RT @SEZAR03511167: The first of black February 2012, this day when the joy of watching football ended, after the tragedy that occurred in P…
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RT @AlexBonnot: « Venu de l'autre pour mettre le feu ». Voilà un des dizaines de slogan marketing produit par la direction de l'OM. Pour c…
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RT @Mbahdeyforyou: Messi remains the king of football 👑
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@Football_3601 He is finished. Going to China is the sure way for now. Europe football is beyond him now 😂 #Football360
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RT @Ozoemenafanpage: Trending on a Football night 🥺🥺🙏🙏🔥🔥🔥🔥 you guys are so amazing Wow TRADE WITH UBYCO
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@matti_bigley @cbiglegal Taking the mick out of a 15 Year Old kid due to a football chant, that's a new low.
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RT @oshcuddles: you will surely have a crush on all members of the football team when that team is exo
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@SpursOfficial Give him til end of season hope he wins a trophy for us then sack him off I can’t watch this football for another season
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@rosalia @lucia_argent @neymarjr @KMbappe I lost my mom quite a while ago and my dad cannot afford financially to s…
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C'est quoi le pire à Nantes ? Out of context football
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RT @EdmundOris: Your MCM stayed awake till after 11, hoping he’d troll Messi and Barca for losing tonight 🤡🤡🤡 What he witnessed was sumptuo…
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@Ericdub79208888 @RonnieFut10 @ActuFoot_ Bah bien évidemment, Paris est une CAPITALE. ça ne tourne pas qu'autour du…
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Was on a roll with the football tips last week barely a mention of it. Hit a dip in form and you've lads messaging…
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RT @TheEuropeanLad: Ibrahim Affelay has just announced his official retirement from football, at the age of 34.
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Lo lindo que me enseñó el fútbol ”NUNCA BAJAR LOS BRAZOS” The beautiful thing football taught me "NEVER GIVE UP"
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Liberty Christian School in Texas named recently-retired TE Jason Witten as its new head football coach.
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RT @TorreySmithWR: Let me give you some advice. If you are having a conversation with someone about Matthew Stafford’s talent and they say…
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RT @JamesPearceLFC: Klopp wants Minamino to get a run of games in the Premier League between now and May. Still sees a future for him at An…
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RT @SaraFCBi: Cristiano Ronaldo turns 36 in 2 days... Leo Messi will turn 34... Enjoy their football while it lasts 🇦🇷🇵🇹
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@juventusfc @SamiKhedira Not football related ⚽️ Coup d'etat happened in our country #Myanmar (#Burma) & military…
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@ObeseChess easily decapitating the elf woman with a simple football maneuver
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RT @ZEGLERSBLAIR: “neopronouns are weird and confusing” what the fuck is a fantasy football
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RT @UCLABrainSPORT: How can we do the greatest good to reduce head impacts and #concussion incidence in #college #football?
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@football_l5 @hilal61__ كذاب .. يا كذاب .. طيب ليه زعلان ومتنرفز .. تتذكر هدف حسين عبد الغني فيك من خارج منطقة الجزاء ..
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1+ corner to be taken at ODDS OF 20/1 Man Utd v Southampton Get This offer here 📲 T&C's appl…
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1+ corner to be taken at ODDS OF 20/1 Man Utd v Southampton Get This offer here 📲 T&C's appl…
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RT @InsideSportJP: 15 years ago Japan put together an indoor football team and played a game against an American side in San Diego. #アメフト…
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RT @ClaireakaMinnie: @MaryLTrump It seemed for ever that dems have acquiesce to bi-partisanship so long. The repubs have pulled the "Char…
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@brush1chromatic Football field
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Ugandan football agent acquitted of fraud charges in Kenya
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@Football_Naija That settles it. I'm getting a Fulham Jersey. They are officially the England Super Eagles: Aina, L…
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RT @AcedTips: #AcedTips #7Folds #MondayMotivation #MondayVibes =================================== ⚽| FOOTBALL: FT Straight Win 1xBet Code…
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@maykathleen_ Please!
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I’m a true honest Barcelona fan and this finally sets it in stone. People said Messi was finished and they were rig…
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Breaking: EA Sports is rebooting its college football series for Next Generation consoles. The announcement ends…
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.@EASPORTS is bringing back its college football video game series First time since 2014 🤯 @BRGaming
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Still one of the greatest plays in NCAA Football history 😂 (via @therealhwilson)
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Our football federation can not prevent the irregularities in the transfer. We need help to continue football in ou…
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Sportwriting often provided no respite from Trump coverage while he was still in office. And it’s no respite even n…
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Hrigt ta hero almadonna ergajt gejt nilab il football. Du has pulled a hammy #careerendinginjury #wastedtalent #foxxcalixorta
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RT @RyanBurnsMN: Here's everything that #Gophers coach PJ Fleck had to say to the media in his first press conference of 2021. - His thou…
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@sweetnasty791 @BradPowers7 Cannot disagree but those 3 - 4 teams worked and invested resources to get there. Just…
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Pickup #ユニフォーム コレクション 「ボカ・ジュニアーズ 95 (H) Olan 90周年記念モデル 12番」 by baggio10さん せっかく襟があるのに、なんかイマイチなデザインでもったいない感じです... …▶…
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@The_Walrus007 @Peter_Fitz I am not a troll. I am a woman who is sick and tired of men running around chasing a foo…
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@alanhinton11 Until we made the double substitution and went from 4-3-3 to 4-4-2 we were in no trouble as there was…
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@robertmdaws Indeed. One of my first football memories was when he was used as the advert poster boy for an Englan…
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RT @HackneyAbbott: It is appalling that, even when the police are able to track down these racists who abuse & threaten black people online…
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Football fans in general are clueless A lot think it's some sort of TV show there for entertainment and underdog s…
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Dagba c’est le seul joueur de l’histoire du football qui va finir sa carrière avec 0 dribble réussi.
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FSU Baseball really needs to get better with recruiting the football guys. Unacceptable to keep getting dogged by a school like Ole Miss
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RT @TheBigGuyWJCL: WJCL FLASHBACK That time @ShannonSharpe and @SterlingSharpe_ were honored in a special way. Back in 2012, the old Glen…
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RT @dw_sports: Football 101: Always watch Marco Rose's Borussia Mönchengladbach. #VfBBMG #DFBPokal
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How is Mick McCarthy going to London to watch a football match an essential journey?
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@Rmg_062 @MadridXtra @elchiringuitotv Regui of course. Mendy is very good defensive wise but his football is childi…
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@BentoBob93 @severn58 @FTFonFS1 @getnickwright Your incompetence was displayed already. 99.9% of people who watch f…
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RT @FieldYates: Today is National Signing Day in college football, which includes two top 100 players that are sons of incredible NFL playe…
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Griezmann has 6 goals and 7 assists in his last 9 games 🔥 The football world loves to see it!
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@AjayDaGreat I can catch any football thrown within ten yards of me according to my friends. (Years ago)
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@S0LGZqVRZ9VQy8p @xxazx3 @football_l5 سري لك مع اني اشجع الاهلي الا تاريخ الاهلي المصري اكبر من تاريخ مدريد
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@sinnerworld That used to be my Nickname in football
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RT @DailyMirror: England star Jack Grealish pays for funeral of Aston Villa-mad teenager who died in horror car crash
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@AJLuna @Adam_Blake1986 @whalexander_ I’m hoping that the sports gods are punishing us with what we’ve seen in foot…
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On the Line poll: What is your biggest question about Auburn football as we head toward A-Day? Comment below ⬇️
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Check out this iPhone game I'm playing called Soccer Tycoon
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RT @giovanni_579: 8 years ago they played football at a Beyoncé concert
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RT @NostaIgiaSports: One of the most humiliating moments in football history.
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Don't know for whom to feel sorry for, Mourinho or Spurs or FOOTBALL?! #TOTCHE
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Barcelona in the CL aside, I didn’t think I’ve ever been as livid or angry watching a game as I was when we all saw…
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The closest and most obvious definition to life is football In football anything can happen So is Life
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RT @giovanni_579: 8 years ago they played football at a Beyoncé concert
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RT @CNN: Teqball is a cross between football and table tennis. BellaTeq, the world's first all-female Teqball club, is on a mission to gro…
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RT @AdelaideUnited: Football Friday! ⚽: Kick-off 6:35pm 🏟: Gates open 5:00pm 🎟: Tickets: 🚘: $5 parking at Adelaide…
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Tellement bon joueur, je le voudrais dans mon équipe! Contrairement à notre médecin joueur de football, la positi…
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RT @PFF_College: Top-10 WRs returning to College Football (@PFF_Anthony)
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Happy 36th Birthday ⁦@Cristiano⁩ - the greatest player in football history. 🐐
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BREAKING: Ajax goalkeeper Andre Onana is banned from football for a year after failing a drugs test last October.
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Türkiyenin en büyük derbisi için sabırsızlanıyorum 🇹🇷⚽💛💙🔥 // Looking forward to the biggest game in Turkish footbal…
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9 Jackrabbits were named to the Preseason Missouri Valley Football Conference team, which was tied for tops in @ValleyFootball. #GoJacks 🐰🏈
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@SNYtv @Cadillac honestly kind of annoyed. Everyone running to the Dodgers it's starting to feel like College Foot…
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RT @Blklivesmatter: Happy birthday, king Trayvon Martin. #26. Today we honor you. Lover of video games and football; explorer of aviation a…
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@FlaHSFootball some football news. Thanks to @Prep_Gridiron Columbus will be traveling up to Georgia to play Benedi…
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RT @Blklivesmatter: Happy birthday, king Trayvon Martin. #26. Today we honor you. Lover of video games and football; explorer of aviation a…
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RT @jon_bois: the five sports are basketball, football, mma, esports and masterchef
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RT @Pop_Podcast676: “If your daughter is dating a football player gotta check his hudl” lol definitely one of my requirements 🤣🤣🤣🤣 @RossApo…
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Ready for Super Bowl Sunday and NOT bc of football😊
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RT @SharpFootball: The Super Bowl LV Football Worksheet ► a DETAILED BREAKDOWN of EVERY PLAYER in the Super Bowl ► predictions, projection…
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@mybrokenglasses football shaped street 😭😭😭😭
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RT @BrittanyBadeTV: "He was the ultimate teammate and I'm sure that, if that's how he did his job as a state policeman, then they had the b…
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RT @SkyFootball: Rocket from Hourihane 🚀 The Aston Villa loanee continues his stunning start to life as Swan 🦢 📺 Watch Swansea v Norwich…
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RT @dore_report: Clark Lea’s staff continues to grow. TDR is your one stop shop for all news surrounding Vanderbilt Football’s latest addit…
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RT @piersmorgan: Happy 36th Birthday ⁦@Cristiano⁩ - the greatest player in football history. 🐐
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RT @AnimaIWorIds: Oh nothing, just some fish playing football⚽🐠
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RT @Bmayp: @ETBU_Football exploring @InnerSpaceCave #TigerFamily #CreatingMemories #Henotace
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@keenvol87 @GamecockFB @MoHard20 B/c y'all cheated.. Why would I address that lol. Maybe don't cheat? It was rampan…
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Pep Guardiola faces Jose Mourinho for the 25th time on Saturday. Between them they’ve coached so many of football’…
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Dave Chappelle: “Watch the tape. Watch that crowd that told Colin Kaepernick he can’t kneel during a football game…
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Klopp’s brought so much joy and excitement to English football with his passion, energy and the excellence of his…
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HAPPY V. DAY 💜😚 #footballplayer #football #footballart #ValentinesDay #SaintValentin #Lukaku #zlatan #Ibrahimovic…
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I dont mind Jose, maybe he is a bit outdated but still a good coach who should improve some players, especially def…
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RT @LeeTsports: A new leader emerges for @JGHSAthletics football program! @SwanValleyFball @MuskegonBigReds ...
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@henrywinter Sad for his personal problems ...but its great not to have to listen to media fawning over them ....li…
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Watch live now : Southampton - Wolverhampton. Football Stream link free in HD
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RT @ltarsenal: If Lacazette scores first today vs Leeds, we will giveaway a Mystery Football shirt box! 👕 To enter: 1️⃣ Retweet this tweet…
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@kyle_burger Do u even watch football Lorraine?
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RT @ESPNUK: A group of football fans belting out their version of Savage Garden’s “Truly, Madly, Deeply” to celebrate Valentine’s Day ❤️ (…
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great great football im the build up. so good
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RT @equipedefrance: Les joueuses de l'Equipe de France ont rejoint un Centre National du Football enneigé et débutent désormais la préparat…
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I smell some good football in the air. You ready, @JesusImaz11?
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RT @AlasdairGold: Yes it was a fleeting moment in a disappointing afternoon for Spurs and yes it might just be clutching at straws, but tha…
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@football_l5 @NAmrabat53 دائما النصراوي محلي او اجنبي لا يعطيك الا موسم او موسمين فقط وينتهي والى الان لا نعرف السبب !!
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RT @Ramorolaas: @Lionesses_Mak @football_papi
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@louaraa_ Bah je suis pas fan des animes de sport, je suis pas fan de football non plus, mais j’ai trouvé ça sympa a regarder.
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@xiivfc @football_l5 ههههههههههههههههههههه
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RT @LustraSkye: @GraceBrodie @rizia4indy The staging is a continuation of the puerile *Winnie Mandela Football Team* tactics used against J…
1
Happy Valentine’s Day to our one true love, football ❤️
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Love the idea of covid vaccine passports for everywhere: flights, restaurants, clubs, football, gyms, shops etc. I…
2375
@starchild823 @danieltyree And imagine 190,000 fans at one event, like I saw in Charlotte. It's pretty impressive.…
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RT @CrewsMat19: Dembele: “Messi was and still is my inspiration in my childhood. It is an honor for me to play alongside him. Playing with…
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@tom_king79 Tom- my wife cannot go to work, my two sons cannot go to work, my granddaughter cannot attend school, I…
0
FOOTBALL: CAN U20, le Cameroun réussi sa première. Les lionceaux du Cameroun ont humilié la Mauritanie, pays hôte h…
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@lwalubengo Exactly but nothing changes just by wishing it to change and that is exactly what this gentlemen are do…
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RT @JapanF3: JFFC 2020 supported by COMP 第3ステージが開催中🔥 Instagramで #JFFC2020 と検索すると、日本トップレベルのフリースタイラーの動画が見られます! #フリースタイルフットボール
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RT @CursedLawa: @leronford @JulianGABC7 Unfortunately it isn't just individual bigotry. Real estate as a whole discriminates with redlining…
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@ali1878_efc @thaibrownie It’s like it’s in our DNA Ali. Everything is in place for us to be relevant again but i j…
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Opportunities don't create them✨ @Ashique_22 speaking about his football career and succes…
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@JLPegula I'm a big tennis fan and I know about you Jessie, but football fans don't. Would you rather national NFL…
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RT @bephyne: Good morning Arsenal Football Club supporters 😍😍
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RT @MSNBC: Opinion | @marcambinder: After Pence makes his way down the stairwell, his military aide, carrying a large briefcase, follows. T…
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RT @FutbolCheIsea: Football fans need this Eden Hazard back...
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But we always fixed it. We did everything we could to keep things together. we weren’t perfect. But It was okay. Ha…
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@NotRealMartial you're just salty cause your boy is sh*t at football
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Came to Florida and got lit🍺🍻🍺🍻🍺 #Brady 😂😂😂😂 #funny #hilarious #football
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RT @Fchavezeptimes: Several college football teams are recruiting Andress High School's Jeremiah Cooper.
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Messi El Clasico 2017
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Cristiano Ronaldo: Juventus star will RETURN to Real Madrid - stunning claim | Football | Sport | Express.co.uk
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Cristiano Ronaldo melduje wykonanie zadania Real Madryt #ronaldo #cristianoronaldo #pilkanozna #futbol #sport #sports #football #soccer #piłkanożna #realmadrid #realmadryt
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Pelé 1970's
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Two of the best
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Champions League final 2019: Tottenham 0-2 Liverpool – in pictures | Football | The Guardian
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Pelé - He was the man. He played with passion and loved to represent our country. It´s a shame there aren´t players like him nowadays...
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M and R
2
city sport colorful retro football league
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FC Barcelona 1990 - 91 Retro Football Shirt | Shop online | COPA
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Playing Football Like A Pro
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Football Flyer
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Free Printable Football Banner for your Super Bowl party or any football themed party!
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Football Logo Dorchester Town
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Inktee Store - Seattle Dragons Football Hoodies
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21 Day Fix Game Day Foods, Football friendly 21 day fix recipes
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Messi El Clasico 2017
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Campeones
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Champions League final 2019: Tottenham 0-2 Liverpool – in pictures | Football | The Guardian
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Cristiano Ronaldo: Juventus star will RETURN to Real Madrid - stunning claim | Football | Sport | Express.co.uk
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Playing football on green grass background element
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Mes éditions - France Football
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FOOTBALL TORTE: eine stehende 3D-Football Torte
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France Football , toute l'actualité du football
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Kick-off game day with these delicious football treats! Cocoa Krispie cereal converted into chocolaty rice Krispie footballs perfect for football season! #SuperBowlFoodAppetizers #Football #Krispy Super Bowl Food 36+ Football Rice Krispy Treats | Super Bowl Food For Two | 2020
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Old School Panini: UK Football Team - Manchester United 1988
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football - Google Search
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Football Plastic Tablecloth | Football Party Supplies #footballparty #footballbirthdayparty #footballbirthday #footballthemeparty #footballthemedparty #footballpartyideas #footballdecorations #footballpartydecorations #tailgateparty #tailgatingparty #tailgatepartyideas #sportsparty #sportsthemeparty #gamedayparty
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Great gift for the person who plays or watches football. Available in Men's, Women's and Kids sizes. #ad #football #gifts #forhim #shirt #footballshirt #offseason #nfl #nfc #funny #humor #superbowl #playoffs | Football Shirt Funny | football offseason quotes | Football Gifts for Boyfriend | Football Gifts for Player | Football Lover Gifts for Him
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Vegan Buffalo Chicken Football Pastries
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Etsy - Checkout - Shipping
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Amazon.fr : football
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Football Paper Plates | Football Party Supplies #footballparty #footballbirthdayparty #footballbirthday #footballthemeparty #footballthemedparty #footballpartyideas #footballdecorations #footballpartydecorations #tailgateparty #tailgatingparty #tailgatepartyideas #sportsparty #sportsthemeparty #gamedayparty
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Norway's most spectacular football stadiums
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1986 Topps Little Shop of Horrors #24 / But then there's Audrey ... | The Trading Card Database
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Canine interruption: How a dog brought a football match to a halt - YouTube
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football Pinterest Ideas
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Jul 19, 2020 22:41
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🇳🇬🇬🇧 Chicken suya. Finger licking 🇳🇬 bbq chicken. Taste and get hooked. Yummy 😋 😋 you’ll always come back for more. ( Grilled spiced 🐓, called 🐓 Suya). 👉 This is made fresh in 🇬🇧. For your special events 👉 Call / WhatsApp 07388365854. #suya #nigeria #9ja #artist #nigerianfood #nigeriafoodinlondon #londonfood #tasty #delicioso #delicious #cnn #media #celebrity #londoneats #steak #barbecue #foodporn #eaten #instagram #party #occasions #events #bbq #weddings #food #inspiration #nja #njaartist #basketball #football
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#bbq #occasions #football #delicioso #events
Jul 19, 2020 22:41
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Man Utd fans rn: #football #footy #soccer #premierleague #laliga #seriea #arsenal #liverpool #psg #barcelona #madrid #real #mancity #manutd #juventus #cristiano #ronaldo #messi#bale #neymar #rashford #fpl #afc #instagram #meme #footballmeme #ucl #uel
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#footballmeme #mancity #real #uel #afc
Jul 19, 2020 22:41
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سنسور بسیار حساس این دستگاه که مانع از آسیب رسیدن به انگشتان میشود👏👏👍 . . . . @gidelikner . . . . . . Միացեք մեզ👉 @gitelikner ما را دنبال کنید 👈 @gidelikner Follow us 👉@gidelikner . ——————————————————— Like Share Tag Follow ——————————————————— . @gidelikner را دنبال کنید و از دانستن مطالب جدید لذت ببرید ——————————————————— #repost#ایران#تهران#اقتصاد#اینستاگرام#تلگرام#منوتو#کرونا #photooftheday#fashion#beautiful#happy#cute#tbt#like4like#followme#love#follow#love#armenia#ronaldo#messi##art#gidelikner#football#yerevan#germany#covid#followforfollowback#հայաստան
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##art #germany #repost #followme #covid
Jul 19, 2020 22:41
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L’inspiration de Neymar 🦋😍 ————————————————— #neymar #neymarjr #psg #icicestparis #edits #football #nike
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#psg #neymar #nike #icicestparis #football
Jul 19, 2020 22:41
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This is how football should be played😌done talk😑 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #football #footballplayer #footballplayers #footballtricks #dribbling #neymarskills #neymar #neymarjr #neymarjunior #footballgame #footballgoal
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#neymarjr #neymar #footballplayers #footballtricks #neymarjunior
Jul 19, 2020 22:41
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Acho que batizaram a água do Maguire🙄 . . . . . . . . . . #mufc #manchesterunited #chelsea #futebolmoderno #futebol #football #maguire
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#chelsea #football #maguire #futebol #futebolmoderno
Jul 19, 2020 22:41
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Champions EFL... LEEDS... #lufc#ellandroad#peacocks#united#whites#football#leeds
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#leeds #football #ellandroad #united #lufc
Jul 19, 2020 22:41
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. ▫️تم التصويت لروبرت ليفاندوفسكي كأفضل لاعب ميداني في الموسم الماضي من البوندسليجا من قبل 270 لاعبًا في الدوري الألماني في استطلاع كيكر التقليدي . . 1. روبرت ليفاندوفسكي (42.6 %) 2 - جادون سانشو (14.1 %) 3 - جوشوا كيميش (12.2 %) . . . . #fcbayern #fcbayernmunchen #fcbayernmunich #bayern #bayernmunich #bayernmunchen #lewandowski #neuer #miasanmia #allianzarena #germany #news #sport #football #bundesliga #championsleague #ucl #بايرن_ميونيخ #أخبار #رياضة
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#bayernmunchen #bundesliga #sport #miasanmia #football
Jul 19, 2020 22:41
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A bit of time and love is what you need to get some yield. There is nothing ever so beautiful than the golden fields of wheat ready to harvest #lockdown #kentcoast #supportlocal #interiordesign #kentlife #covid #stayhome #landscape #countryside #gravesend #beauty #southeast #igerskent #football #staysafe #food #kentmums #naturephotography #sevenoaksmums #kentbloggergroup #kenybloggers #fields #greenspaces #wheatfields #kentfield
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#fields #countryside #stayhome #kentmums #lockdown
Jul 19, 2020 22:41
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Worst game of the season so far ☹️ Manchester United Tamilnadu Fan Page Old Accout with 192 K followers deleted. ❤️Glory Glory Manchester United 💪 Keep supporting and follow this page @manchester_united_tamilnadu for more updates about the Red Devils. #manchesterunited #manchesterunitedtamil #manutd #man_utd_tamil_fans #ggmu #gloryglorymanunited #pl #premierleague #footballupdates #manchester_united #manchesterunitedupdate #football #footballnews #dailyfootball #blacklivesmatter #reddevils #siralexferguson #manutdnews #premierleagueupdates #brunofernandes #pogba #deagea #instafootball #goals #championsleague #facup #europacup #oldtrafford #manchesterderby #upthereds
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#manchesterunited #upthereds #oldtrafford #goals #manchesterunitedupdate