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India (Hindi: Bhārat), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia. It is the second-most populous country, the seventh-largest country by land area, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar and Indonesia.

Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago. Their long occupation, initially in varying forms of isolation as hunter-gatherers, has made the region highly diverse, second only to Africa in human genetic diversity. Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus Valley Civilisation of the third millennium BCE. By 1200 BCE, an archaic form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from the northwest, unfolding as the language of the Rigveda, and recording the dawning of Hinduism in India.[disputed ] The Dravidian languages of India were supplanted in the northern and western regions. By 400 BCE, stratification and exclusion by caste had emerged within Hinduism, and Buddhism and Jainism had arisen, proclaiming social orders unlinked to heredity. Early political consolidations gave rise to the loose-knit Maurya and Gupta Empires based in the Ganges Basin. Their collective era was suffused with wide-ranging creativity, but also marked by the declining status of women, and the incorporation of untouchability into an organised system of belief. In South India, the Middle kingdoms exported Dravidian-languages scripts and religious cultures to the kingdoms of Southeast Asia.

In the early medieval era, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism put down roots on India's southern and western coasts. Muslim armies from Central Asia intermittently overran India's northern plains, eventually establishing the Delhi Sultanate, and drawing northern India into the cosmopolitan networks of medieval Islam. In the 15th century, the Vijayanagara Empire created a long-lasting composite Hindu culture in south India. In the Punjab, Sikhism emerged, rejecting institutionalised religion. The Mughal Empire, in 1526, ushered in two centuries of relative peace, leaving a legacy of luminous architecture. Gradually expanding rule of the British East India Company followed, turning India into a colonial economy, but also consolidating its sovereignty. British Crown rule began in 1858. The rights promised to Indians were granted slowly, but technological changes were introduced, and ideas of education, modernity and the public life took root. A pioneering and influential nationalist movement emerged, which was noted for nonviolent resistance and became the major factor in ending British rule. In 1947 the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two independent dominions, a Hindu-majority Dominion of India and a Muslim-majority Dominion of Pakistan, amid large-scale loss of life and an unprecedented migration.

India has been a federal republic since 1950, governed in a democratic parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society. India's population grew from 361 million in 1951 to 1.211 billion in 2011. During the same time, its nominal per capita income increased from US$64 annually to US$1,498, and its literacy rate from 16.6% to 74%. From being a comparatively destitute country in 1951, India has become a fast-growing major economy and a hub for information technology services, with an expanding middle class. It has a space programme which includes several planned or completed extraterrestrial missions. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture. India has substantially reduced its rate of poverty, though at the cost of increasing economic inequality. India is a nuclear-weapon state, which ranks high in military expenditure. It has disputes over Kashmir with its neighbours, Pakistan and China, unresolved since the mid-20th century. Among the socio-economic challenges India faces are gender inequality, child malnutrition, and rising levels of air pollution. India's land is megadiverse, with four biodiversity hotspots. Its forest cover comprises 21.7% of its area. India's wildlife, which has traditionally been viewed with tolerance in India's culture, is supported among these forests, and elsewhere, in protected habitats.

According to the Oxford English Dictionary (third edition 2009), the name "India" is derived from the Classical Latin India, a reference to South Asia and an uncertain region to its east; and in turn derived successively from: Hellenistic Greek India ( Ἰνδία); ancient Greek Indos ( Ἰνδός); Old Persian Hindush, an eastern province of the Achaemenid empire; and ultimately its cognate, the Sanskrit Sindhu, or "river," specifically the Indus river and, by implication, its well-settled southern basin. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ἰνδοί), which translates as "The people of the Indus".

The term Bharat (Bhārat; pronounced [ˈbʱaːɾət] (About this soundlisten)), mentioned in both Indian epic poetry and the Constitution of India, is used in its variations by many Indian languages. A modern rendering of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which applied originally to a region of the Gangetic Valley, Bharat gained increased currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India.

Hindustan ([ɦɪndʊˈstaːn] (About this soundlisten)) is a Middle Persian name for India, introduced during the Mughal Empire and used widely since. Its meaning has varied, referring to a region encompassing present-day northern India and Pakistan or to India in its near entirety.

By 55,000 years ago, the first modern humans, or Homo sapiens, had arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa, where they had earlier evolved. The earliest known modern human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, and storage of agricultural surplus appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan, Pakistan. These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, and Kalibangan, and relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilisation engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade.

During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones. The Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, and historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain. Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests, warriors, and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labelling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions.

In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas. The emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of its exemplar, Mahavira. Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle class; chronicling the life of the Buddha was central to the beginnings of recorded history in India. In an age of increasing urban wealth, both religions held up renunciation as an ideal, and both established long-lasting monastic traditions. Politically, by the 3rd century BCE, the kingdom of Magadha had annexed or reduced other states to emerge as the Mauryan Empire. The empire was once thought to have controlled most of the subcontinent except the far south, but its core regions are now thought to have been separated by large autonomous areas. The Mauryan kings are known as much for their empire-building and determined management of public life as for Ashoka's renunciation of militarism and far-flung advocacy of the Buddhist dhamma.

The Sangam literature of the Tamil language reveals that, between 200 BCE and 200 CE, the southern peninsula was ruled by the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas, dynasties that traded extensively with the Roman Empire and with West and South-East Asia. In North India, Hinduism asserted patriarchal control within the family, leading to increased subordination of women. By the 4th and 5th centuries, the Gupta Empire had created a complex system of administration and taxation in the greater Ganges Plain; this system became a model for later Indian kingdoms. Under the Guptas, a renewed Hinduism based on devotion, rather than the management of ritual, began to assert itself. This renewal was reflected in a flowering of sculpture and architecture, which found patrons among an urban elite. Classical Sanskrit literature flowered as well, and Indian science, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics made significant advances.

The Indian early medieval age, 600 CE to 1200 CE, is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural diversity. When Harsha of Kannauj, who ruled much of the Indo-Gangetic Plain from 606 to 647 CE, attempted to expand southwards, he was defeated by the Chalukya ruler of the Deccan. When his successor attempted to expand eastwards, he was defeated by the Pala king of Bengal. When the Chalukyas attempted to expand southwards, they were defeated by the Pallavas from farther south, who in turn were opposed by the Pandyas and the Cholas from still farther south. No ruler of this period was able to create an empire and consistently control lands much beyond their core region. During this time, pastoral peoples, whose land had been cleared to make way for the growing agricultural economy, were accommodated within caste society, as were new non-traditional ruling classes. The caste system consequently began to show regional differences.

In the 6th and 7th centuries, the first devotional hymns were created in the Tamil language. They were imitated all over India and led to both the resurgence of Hinduism and the development of all modern languages of the subcontinent. Indian royalty, big and small, and the temples they patronised drew citizens in great numbers to the capital cities, which became economic hubs as well. Temple towns of various sizes began to appear everywhere as India underwent another urbanisation. By the 8th and 9th centuries, the effects were felt in South-East Asia, as South Indian culture and political systems were exported to lands that became part of modern-day Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, and Java. Indian merchants, scholars, and sometimes armies were involved in this transmission; South-East Asians took the initiative as well, with many sojourning in Indian seminaries and translating Buddhist and Hindu texts into their languages.

After the 10th century, Muslim Central Asian nomadic clans, using swift-horse cavalry and raising vast armies united by ethnicity and religion, repeatedly overran South Asia's north-western plains, leading eventually to the establishment of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate in 1206. The sultanate was to control much of North India and to make many forays into South India. Although at first disruptive for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs. By repeatedly repulsing Mongol raiders in the 13th century, the sultanate saved India from the devastation visited on West and Central Asia, setting the scene for centuries of migration of fleeing soldiers, learned men, mystics, traders, artists, and artisans from that region into the subcontinent, thereby creating a syncretic Indo-Islamic culture in the north. The sultanate's raiding and weakening of the regional kingdoms of South India paved the way for the indigenous Vijayanagara Empire. Embracing a strong Shaivite tradition and building upon the military technology of the sultanate, the empire came to control much of peninsular India, and was to influence South Indian society for long afterwards.

In the early 16th century, northern India, then under mainly Muslim rulers, fell again to the superior mobility and firepower of a new generation of Central Asian warriors. The resulting Mughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule. Instead, it balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic identity, especially under Akbar, the Mughals united their far-flung realms through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to an emperor who had near-divine status. The Mughal state's economic policies, deriving most revenues from agriculture and mandating that taxes be paid in the well-regulated silver currency, caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets. The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India's economic expansion, resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture. Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. Expanding commerce during Mughal rule gave rise to new Indian commercial and political elites along the coasts of southern and eastern India. As the empire disintegrated, many among these elites were able to seek and control their own affairs.

By the early 18th century, with the lines between commercial and political dominance being increasingly blurred, a number of European trading companies, including the English East India Company, had established coastal outposts. The East India Company's control of the seas, greater resources, and more advanced military training and technology led it to increasingly assert its military strength and caused it to become attractive to a portion of the Indian elite; these factors were crucial in allowing the company to gain control over the Bengal region by 1765 and sideline the other European companies. Its further access to the riches of Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annexe or subdue most of India by the 1820s. India was then no longer exporting manufactured goods as it long had, but was instead supplying the British Empire with raw materials. Many historians consider this to be the onset of India's colonial period. By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and having effectively been made an arm of British administration, the company began more consciously to enter non-economic arenas like education, social reform, and culture.

Historians consider India's modern age to have begun sometime between 1848 and 1885. The appointment in 1848 of Lord Dalhousie as Governor General of the East India Company set the stage for changes essential to a modern state. These included the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and the education of citizens. Technological changes—among them, railways, canals, and the telegraph—were introduced not long after their introduction in Europe. However, disaffection with the company also grew during this time and set off the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, and summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and shook the foundations of Company rule. Although the rebellion was suppressed by 1858, it led to the dissolution of the East India Company and the direct administration of India by the British government. Proclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited British-style parliamentary system, the new rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future unrest. In the decades following, public life gradually emerged all over India, leading eventually to the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885.

The rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks and many small farmers became dependent on the whims of far-away markets. There was an increase in the number of large-scale famines, and, despite the risks of infrastructure development borne by Indian taxpayers, little industrial employment was generated for Indians. There were also salutary effects: commercial cropping, especially in the newly canalled Punjab, led to increased food production for internal consumption. The railway network provided critical famine relief, notably reduced the cost of moving goods, and helped nascent Indian-owned industry.

After World War I, in which approximately one million Indians served, a new period began. It was marked by British reforms but also repressive legislation, by more strident Indian calls for self-rule, and by the beginnings of a nonviolent movement of non-co-operation, of which Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi would become the leader and enduring symbol. During the 1930s, slow legislative reform was enacted by the British; the Indian National Congress won victories in the resulting elections. The next decade was beset with crises: Indian participation in World War II, the Congress's final push for non-co-operation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism. All were capped by the advent of independence in 1947, but tempered by the partition of India into two states: India and Pakistan.

Vital to India's self-image as an independent nation was its constitution, completed in 1950, which put in place a secular and democratic republic. It has remained a democracy with civil liberties, an active Supreme Court, and a largely independent press. Economic liberalisation, which began in the 1990s, has created a large urban middle class, transformed India into one of the world's fastest-growing economies, and increased its geopolitical clout. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture. Yet, India is also shaped by seemingly unyielding poverty, both rural and urban; by religious and caste-related violence; by Maoist-inspired Naxalite insurgencies; and by separatism in Jammu and Kashmir and in Northeast India. It has unresolved territorial disputes with China and with Pakistan. India's sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world's newer nations; however, in spite of its recent economic successes, freedom from want for its disadvantaged population remains a goal yet to be achieved.

India accounts for the bulk of the Indian subcontinent, lying atop the Indian tectonic plate, a part of the Indo-Australian Plate. India's defining geological processes began 75 million years ago when the Indian Plate, then part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, began a north-eastward drift caused by seafloor spreading to its south-west, and later, south and south-east. Simultaneously, the vast Tethyan oceanic crust, to its northeast, began to subduct under the Eurasian Plate. These dual processes, driven by convection in the Earth's mantle, both created the Indian Ocean and caused the Indian continental crust eventually to under-thrust Eurasia and to uplift the Himalayas. Immediately south of the emerging Himalayas, plate movement created a vast trough that rapidly filled with river-borne sediment and now constitutes the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Cut off from the plain by the ancient Aravalli Range lies the Thar Desert.

The original Indian Plate survives as peninsular India, the oldest and geologically most stable part of India. It extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India. These parallel chains run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the west to the coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand in the east. To the south, the remaining peninsular landmass, the Deccan Plateau, is flanked on the west and east by coastal ranges known as the Western and Eastern Ghats; the plateau contains the country's oldest rock formations, some over one billion years old. Constituted in such fashion, India lies to the north of the equator between 6° 44′ and 35° 30′ north latitude and 68° 7′ and 97° 25′ east longitude.

India's coastline measures 7,517 kilometres (4,700 mi) in length; of this distance, 5,423 kilometres (3,400 mi) belong to peninsular India and 2,094 kilometres (1,300 mi) to the Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep island chains. According to the Indian naval hydrographic charts, the mainland coastline consists of the following: 43% sandy beaches; 11% rocky shores, including cliffs; and 46% mudflats or marshy shores.

Major Himalayan-origin rivers that substantially flow through India include the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, both of which drain into the Bay of Bengal. Important tributaries of the Ganges include the Yamuna and the Kosi; the latter's extremely low gradient, caused by long-term silt deposition, leads to severe floods and course changes. Major peninsular rivers, whose steeper gradients prevent their waters from flooding, include the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Kaveri, and the Krishna, which also drain into the Bay of Bengal; and the Narmada and the Tapti, which drain into the Arabian Sea. Coastal features include the marshy Rann of Kutch of western India and the alluvial Sundarbans delta of eastern India; the latter is shared with Bangladesh. India has two archipelagos: the Lakshadweep, coral atolls off India's south-western coast; and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a volcanic chain in the Andaman Sea.

The Indian climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which drive the economically and culturally pivotal summer and winter monsoons. The Himalayas prevent cold Central Asian katabatic winds from blowing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes. The Thar Desert plays a crucial role in attracting the moisture-laden south-west summer monsoon winds that, between June and October, provide the majority of India's rainfall. Four major climatic groupings predominate in India: tropical wet, tropical dry, subtropical humid, and montane.

India is a megadiverse country, a term employed for 17 countries which display high biological diversity and contain many species exclusively indigenous, or endemic, to them. India is a habitat for 8.6% of all mammal species, 13.7% of bird species, 7.9% of reptile species, 6% of amphibian species, 12.2% of fish species, and 6.0% of all flowering plant species. Fully a third of Indian plant species are endemic. India also contains four of the world's 34 biodiversity hotspots, or regions that display significant habitat loss in the presence of high endemism.

India's forest cover is 99,278 km2 (38,331 sq mi), which is 21.67% of the country's total land area. It can be subdivided further into broad categories of canopy density, or the proportion of the area of a forest covered by its tree canopy. Very dense forest, whose canopy density is greater than 70%, occupies 3.02% of India's land area. It predominates in the tropical moist forest of the Andaman Islands, the Western Ghats, and Northeast India. Moderately dense forest, whose canopy density is between 40% and 70%, occupies 9.39% of India's land area. It predominates in the temperate coniferous forest of the Himalayas, the moist deciduous sal forest of eastern India, and the dry deciduous teak forest of central and southern India. Open forest, whose canopy density is between 10% and 40%, occupies 9.26% of India's land area, and predominates in the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan Plateau and the western Gangetic plain.

Among the Indian subcontinent's notable indigenous trees are the astringent Azadirachta indica, or neem, which is widely used in rural Indian herbal medicine, and the luxuriant Ficus religiosa, or peepul, which is displayed on the ancient seals of Mohenjo-daro, and under which the Buddha is recorded in the Pali canon to have sought enlightenment.

Many Indian species have descended from those of Gondwana, the southern supercontinent from which India separated more than 100 million years ago. India's subsequent collision with Eurasia set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic changes later caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms. Still later, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes flanking the Himalayas. This had the effect of lowering endemism among India's mammals, which stands at 12.6%, contrasting with 45.8% among reptiles and 55.8% among amphibians. Notable endemics are the vulnerable hooded leaf monkey and the threatened Beddom's toad of the Western Ghats.

India contains 172 IUCN-designated threatened animal species, or 2.9% of endangered forms. These include the endangered Bengal tiger and the Ganges river dolphin. Critically endangered species include: the gharial, a crocodilian; the great Indian bustard; and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which has become nearly extinct by having ingested the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle. The pervasive and ecologically devastating human encroachment of recent decades has critically endangered Indian wildlife. In response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was expanded substantially. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial wilderness; the Forest Conservation Act was enacted in 1980 and amendments added in 1988. India hosts more than five hundred wildlife sanctuaries and thirteen biosphere reserves, four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; twenty-five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.

India is the world's most populous democracy. A parliamentary republic with a multi-party system, it has eight recognised national parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and more than 40 regional parties. The Congress is considered centre-left in Indian political culture, and the BJP right-wing. For most of the period between 1950—when India first became a republic—and the late 1980s, the Congress held a majority in the parliament. Since then, however, it has increasingly shared the political stage with the BJP, as well as with powerful regional parties which have often forced the creation of multi-party coalition governments at the centre.

In the Republic of India's first three general elections, in 1951, 1957, and 1962, the Jawaharlal Nehru-led Congress won easy victories. On Nehru's death in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri briefly became prime minister; he was succeeded, after his own unexpected death in 1966, by Nehru's daughter Indira Gandhi, who went on to lead the Congress to election victories in 1967 and 1971. Following public discontent with the state of emergency she declared in 1975, the Congress was voted out of power in 1977; the then-new Janata Party, which had opposed the emergency, was voted in. Its government lasted just over two years. Voted back into power in 1980, the Congress saw a change in leadership in 1984, when Indira Gandhi was assassinated; she was succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi, who won an easy victory in the general elections later that year. The Congress was voted out again in 1989 when a National Front coalition, led by the newly formed Janata Dal in alliance with the Left Front, won the elections; that government too proved relatively short-lived, lasting just under two years. Elections were held again in 1991; no party won an absolute majority. The Congress, as the largest single party, was able to form a minority government led by P. V. Narasimha Rao.

A two-year period of political turmoil followed the general election of 1996. Several short-lived alliances shared power at the centre. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996; it was followed by two comparatively long-lasting United Front coalitions, which depended on external support. In 1998, the BJP was able to form a successful coalition, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the NDA became the first non-Congress, coalition government to complete a five-year term. Again in the 2004 Indian general elections, no party won an absolute majority, but the Congress emerged as the largest single party, forming another successful coalition: the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). It had the support of left-leaning parties and MPs who opposed the BJP. The UPA returned to power in the 2009 general election with increased numbers, and it no longer required external support from India's communist parties. That year, Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1957 and 1962 to be re-elected to a consecutive five-year term. In the 2014 general election, the BJP became the first political party since 1984 to win a majority and govern without the support of other parties. The incumbent prime minister is Narendra Modi, a former chief minister of Gujarat. On 20 July 2017, Ram Nath Kovind was elected India's 14th president and took the oath of office on 25 July 2017.

India is a federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India—the country's supreme legal document. It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy, in which "majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law". Federalism in India defines the power distribution between the union and the states. The Constitution of India, which came into effect on 26 January 1950, originally stated India to be a "sovereign, democratic republic;" this characterisation was amended in 1971 to "a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic". India's form of government, traditionally described as "quasi-federal" with a strong centre and weak states, has grown increasingly federal since the late 1990s as a result of political, economic, and social changes.

The Government of India comprises three branches:

India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories (listed below as 1–28 and A–H, respectively). All states, as well as the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir, Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments following the Westminster system of governance. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the central government through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were reorganised on a linguistic basis. There are over a quarter of a million local government bodies at city, town, block, district and village levels.

In the 1950s, India strongly supported decolonisation in Africa and Asia and played a leading role in the Non-Aligned Movement. After initially cordial relations with neighbouring China, India went to war with China in 1962, and was widely thought to have been humiliated. India has had tense relations with neighbouring Pakistan; the two nations have gone to war four times: in 1947, 1965, 1971, and 1999. Three of these wars were fought over the disputed territory of Kashmir, while the fourth, the 1971 war, followed from India's support for the independence of Bangladesh. In the late 1980s, the Indian military twice intervened abroad at the invitation of the host country: a peace-keeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990; and an armed intervention to prevent a 1988 coup d'état attempt in the Maldives. After the 1965 war with Pakistan, India began to pursue close military and economic ties with the Soviet Union; by the late 1960s, the Soviet Union was its largest arms supplier.

Aside from ongoing its special relationship with Russia, India has wide-ranging defence relations with Israel and France. In recent years, it has played key roles in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the World Trade Organization. The nation has provided 100,000 military and police personnel to serve in 35 UN peacekeeping operations across four continents. It participates in the East Asia Summit, the G8+5, and other multilateral forums. India has close economic ties with countries in South America, Asia, and Africa; it pursues a "Look East" policy that seeks to strengthen partnerships with the ASEAN nations, Japan, and South Korea that revolve around many issues, but especially those involving economic investment and regional security.

China's nuclear test of 1964, as well as its repeated threats to intervene in support of Pakistan in the 1965 war, convinced India to develop nuclear weapons. India conducted its first nuclear weapons test in 1974 and carried out additional underground testing in 1998. Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has signed neither the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty nor the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, considering both to be flawed and discriminatory. India maintains a "no first use" nuclear policy and is developing a nuclear triad capability as a part of its "Minimum Credible Deterrence" doctrine. It is developing a ballistic missile defence shield and, a fifth-generation fighter jet. Other indigenous military projects involve the design and implementation of Vikrant-class aircraft carriers and Arihant-class nuclear submarines.

Since the end of the Cold War, India has increased its economic, strategic, and military co-operation with the United States and the European Union. In 2008, a civilian nuclear agreement was signed between India and the United States. Although India possessed nuclear weapons at the time and was not a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, it received waivers from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Suppliers Group, ending earlier restrictions on India's nuclear technology and commerce. As a consequence, India became the sixth de facto nuclear weapons state. India subsequently signed co-operation agreements involving civilian nuclear energy with Russia, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada.

The President of India is the supreme commander of the nation's armed forces; with 1.395 million active troops, they compose the world's second-largest military. It comprises the Indian Army, the Indian Navy, the Indian Air Force, and the Indian Coast Guard. The official Indian defence budget for 2011 was US$36.03 billion, or 1.83% of GDP. For the fiscal year spanning 2012–2013, US$40.44 billion was budgeted. According to a 2008 Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) report, India's annual military expenditure in terms of purchasing power stood at US$72.7 billion. In 2011, the annual defence budget increased by 11.6%, although this does not include funds that reach the military through other branches of government. As of 2012, India is the world's largest arms importer; between 2007 and 2011, it accounted for 10% of funds spent on international arms purchases. Much of the military expenditure was focused on defence against Pakistan and countering growing Chinese influence in the Indian Ocean. In May 2017, the Indian Space Research Organisation launched the South Asia Satellite, a gift from India to its neighbouring SAARC countries. In October 2018, India signed a US$5.43 billion (over 400 billion) agreement with Russia to procure four S-400 Triumf surface-to-air missile defence systems, Russia's most advanced long-range missile defence system.

According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Indian economy in 2019 was nominally worth $2.9 trillion; it is the fifth-largest economy by market exchange rates, and is around $11 trillion, the third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). With its average annual GDP growth rate of 5.8% over the past two decades, and reaching 6.1% during 2011–2012, India is one of the world's fastest-growing economies. However, the country ranks 139th in the world in nominal GDP per capita and 118th in GDP per capita at PPP. Until 1991, all Indian governments followed protectionist policies that were influenced by socialist economics. Widespread state intervention and regulation largely walled the economy off from the outside world. An acute balance of payments crisis in 1991 forced the nation to liberalise its economy; since then it has moved slowly towards a free-market system by emphasising both foreign trade and direct investment inflows. India has been a member of WTO since 1 January 1995.

The 513.7-million-worker Indian labour force is the world's second-largest, as of 2016. The service sector makes up 55.6% of GDP, the industrial sector 26.3% and the agricultural sector 18.1%. India's foreign exchange remittances of US$70 billion in 2014, the largest in the world, were contributed to its economy by 25 million Indians working in foreign countries. Major agricultural products include: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, and potatoes. Major industries include: textiles, telecommunications, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food processing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, and software. In 2006, the share of external trade in India's GDP stood at 24%, up from 6% in 1985. In 2008, India's share of world trade was 1.68%; In 2011, India was the world's tenth-largest importer and the nineteenth-largest exporter. Major exports include: petroleum products, textile goods, jewellery, software, engineering goods, chemicals, and manufactured leather goods. Major imports include: crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, and chemicals. Between 2001 and 2011, the contribution of petrochemical and engineering goods to total exports grew from 14% to 42%. India was the world's second largest textile exporter after China in the 2013 calendar year.

Averaging an economic growth rate of 7.5% for several years prior to 2007, India has more than doubled its hourly wage rates during the first decade of the 21st century. Some 431 million Indians have left poverty since 1985; India's middle classes are projected to number around 580 million by 2030. Though ranking 51st in global competitiveness, as of 2010, India ranks 17th in financial market sophistication, 24th in the banking sector, 44th in business sophistication, and 39th in innovation, ahead of several advanced economies. With seven of the world's top 15 information technology outsourcing companies based in India, as of 2009, the country is viewed as the second-most favourable outsourcing destination after the United States. India's consumer market, the world's eleventh-largest, is expected to become fifth-largest by 2030. Increasing access to electricity and clean cooking have been the priorities for energy in India: the country's coal is a major cause of greenhouse gas emissions by India but the country's renewable energy is competing strongly.

Driven by growth, India's nominal GDP per capita increased steadily from US$329 in 1991, when economic liberalisation began, to US$1,265 in 2010, to an estimated US$1,723 in 2016. It is expected to grow to US$2,358 by 2020. However, it has remained lower than those of other Asian developing countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and is expected to remain so in the near future. Its GDP per capita is higher than Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan and others.

According to a 2011 PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) report, India's GDP at purchasing power parity could overtake that of the United States by 2045. During the next four decades, Indian GDP is expected to grow at an annualised average of 8%, making it potentially the world's fastest-growing major economy until 2050. The report highlights key growth factors: a young and rapidly growing working-age population; growth in the manufacturing sector because of rising education and engineering skill levels; and sustained growth of the consumer market driven by a rapidly growing middle-class. The World Bank cautions that, for India to achieve its economic potential, it must continue to focus on public sector reform, transport infrastructure, agricultural and rural development, removal of labour regulations, education, energy security, and public health and nutrition.

According to the Worldwide Cost of Living Report 2017 released by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) which was created by comparing more than 400 individual prices across 160 products and services, four of the cheapest cities were in India: Bangalore (3rd), Mumbai (5th), Chennai (5th) and New Delhi (8th).

India's telecommunication industry is the second-largest in the world with over 1.2 billion subscribers. It contributes 6.5% to India's GDP. After the third quarter of 2017, India surpassed the US to become the second largest smartphone market in the world after China.

The Indian automotive industry, the world's second-fastest growing, increased domestic sales by 26% during 2009–2010, and exports by 36% during 2008–2009. India's capacity to generate electrical power is 300 gigawatts, of which 42 gigawatts is renewable. At the end of 2011, the Indian IT industry employed 2.8 million professionals, generated revenues close to US$100 billion equalling 7.5% of Indian GDP, and contributed 26% of India's merchandise exports.

The pharmaceutical industry in India is among the significant emerging markets for the global pharmaceutical industry. The Indian pharmaceutical market is expected to reach $48.5 billion by 2020. India's R & D spending constitutes 60% of the biopharmaceutical industry. India is among the top 12 biotech destinations in the world. The Indian biotech industry grew by 15.1% in 2012–2013, increasing its revenues from 204.4 billion (Indian rupees) to 235.24 billion (US$3.94 billion at June 2013 exchange rates).

Despite economic growth during recent decades, India continues to face socio-economic challenges. In 2006, India contained the largest number of people living below the World Bank's international poverty line of US$1.25 per day. The proportion decreased from 60% in 1981 to 42% in 2005. Under the World Bank's later revised poverty line, it was 21% in 2011. 30.7% of India's children under the age of five are underweight. According to a Food and Agriculture Organization report in 2015, 15% of the population is undernourished. The Mid-Day Meal Scheme attempts to lower these rates.

According to a 2016 Walk Free Foundation report there were an estimated 18.3 million people in India, or 1.4% of the population, living in the forms of modern slavery, such as bonded labour, child labour, human trafficking, and forced begging, among others. According to the 2011 census, there were 10.1 million child labourers in the country, a decline of 2.6 million from 12.6 million in 2001.

Since 1991, economic inequality between India's states has consistently grown: the per-capita net state domestic product of the richest states in 2007 was 3.2 times that of the poorest. Corruption in India is perceived to have decreased. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, India ranked 78th out of 180 countries in 2018 with a score of 41 out of 100, an improvement from 85th in 2014.

With 1,210,193,422 residents reported in the 2011 provisional census report, India is the world's second-most populous country. Its population grew by 17.64% from 2001 to 2011, compared to 21.54% growth in the previous decade (1991–2001). The human sex ratio, according to the 2011 census, is 940 females per 1,000 males. The median age was 27.6 as of 2016. The first post-colonial census, conducted in 1951, counted 361 million people. Medical advances made in the last 50 years as well as increased agricultural productivity brought about by the "Green Revolution" have caused India's population to grow rapidly.

The average life expectancy in India is at 68 years—69.6 years for women, 67.3 years for men. There are around 50 physicians per 100,000 Indians. Migration from rural to urban areas has been an important dynamic in India's recent history. The number of people living in urban areas grew by 31.2% between 1991 and 2001. Yet, in 2001, over 70% still lived in rural areas. The level of urbanisation increased further from 27.81% in the 2001 Census to 31.16% in the 2011 Census. The slowing down of the overall population growth rate was due to the sharp decline in the growth rate in rural areas since 1991. According to the 2011 census, there are 53 million-plus urban agglomerations in India; among them Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad, in decreasing order by population. The literacy rate in 2011 was 74.04%: 65.46% among females and 82.14% among males. The rural-urban literacy gap, which was 21.2 percentage points in 2001, dropped to 16.1 percentage points in 2011. The improvement in the rural literacy rate is twice that of urban areas. Kerala is the most literate state with 93.91% literacy; while Bihar the least with 63.82%.

India is home to two major language families: Indo-Aryan (spoken by about 74% of the population) and Dravidian (spoken by 24% of the population). Other languages spoken in India come from the Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan language families. India has no national language. Hindi, with the largest number of speakers, is the official language of the government. English is used extensively in business and administration and has the status of a "subsidiary official language"; it is important in education, especially as a medium of higher education. Each state and union territory has one or more official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular 22 "scheduled languages".

The 2011 census reported the religion in India with the largest number of followers was Hinduism (79.80% of the population), followed by Islam (14.23%); the remaining were Christianity (2.30%), Sikhism (1.72%), Buddhism (0.70%), Jainism (0.36%) and others (0.9%). India has the third-largest Muslim population—the largest for a non-Muslim majority country.

Indian cultural history spans more than 4,500 years. During the Vedic period (c. 1700 BCE – c. 500 BCE), the foundations of Hindu philosophy, mythology, theology and literature were laid, and many beliefs and practices which still exist today, such as dhárma, kárma, yóga, and mokṣa, were established. India is notable for its religious diversity, with Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity, and Jainism among the nation's major religions. The predominant religion, Hinduism, has been shaped by various historical schools of thought, including those of the Upanishads, the Yoga Sutras, the Bhakti movement, and by Buddhist philosophy.

South Asia has an ancient tradition of art, which has exchanged influences with the parts of Eurasia. Seals from the third millennium BCE Indus Valley Civilization of Pakistan and northern India have been found, usually carved with animals, but a few with human figures. The "Pashupati" seal, excavated in Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, in 1928–29, is the best known. After this there is a long period with virtually nothing surviving. Almost all surviving ancient Indian art thereafter is in various forms of religious sculpture in durable materials, or coins. There was probably originally far more in wood, which is lost. In north India Mauryan art is the first imperial movement. In the first millennium CE, Buddhist art spread with Indian religions to Central, East and South-East Asia, the last also greatly influenced by Hindu art. Over the following centuries a distinctly Indian style of sculpting the human figure developed, with less interest in articulating precise anatomy than ancient Greek sculpture but showing smoothly-flowing forms expressing prana ("breath" or life-force). This is often complicated by the need to give figures multiple arms or heads, or represent different genders on the left and right of figures, as with the Ardhanarishvara form of Shiva and Parvati.

Most of the earliest large sculpture is Buddhist, either excavated from Buddhist stupas such as Sanchi, Sarnath and Amaravati, or is rock-cut reliefs at sites such as Ajanta, Karla and Ellora. Hindu and Jain sites appear rather later. In spite of this complex mixture of religious traditions, generally, the prevailing artistic style at any time and place has been shared by the major religious groups, and sculptors probably usually served all communities. Gupta art, at its peak between about 300 CE and 500 CE, is often regarded as a classical period whose influence lingered for many centuries after; it saw a new dominance of Hindu sculpture, as at the Elephanta Caves. Across the north, this became rather stiff and formulaic after about 800 CE, though rich with finely carved detail in the surrounds of statues. But in the South, under the Pallava and Chola dynasties, sculpture in both stone and bronze had a sustained period of great achievement; the large bronzes with Shiva as Nataraja have become an iconic symbol of India.

Ancient painting has only survived at a few sites, of which the crowded scenes of court life in the Ajanta Caves are by far the most important, but it was evidently highly developed, and is mentioned as a courtly accomplishment in Gupta times. Painted manuscripts of religious texts survive from Eastern India about the 10th century onwards, most of the earliest being Buddhist and later Jain. No doubt the style of these was used in larger paintings. The Persian-derived Deccan painting, starting just before the Mughal miniature, between them give the first large body of secular painting, with an emphasis on portraits, and the recording of princely pleasures and wars. The style spread to Hindu courts, especially among the Rajputs, and developed a variety of styles, with the smaller courts often the most innovative, with figures such as Nihâl Chand and Nainsukh. As a market developed among European residents, it was supplied by Company painting by Indian artists with considerable Western influence. In the 19th century, cheap Kalighat paintings of gods and everyday life, done on paper, were urban folk art from Calcutta, which later saw the Bengal School of Art, reflecting the art colleges founded by the British, the first movement in modern Indian painting.

Bhutesvara Yakshis, Buddhist reliefs from Mathura, 2nd century CE

Gupta terracotta relief, Krishna Killing the Horse Demon Keshi, 5th century

Elephanta Caves, triple-bust (trimurti) of Shiva, 18 feet (5.5 m) tall, c. 550

Jahangir Receives Prince Khurram at Ajmer on His Return from the Mewar Campaign, Balchand, c. 1635

Krishna Fluting to the Milkmaids, Kangra painting, 1775-1785

Much of Indian architecture, including the Taj Mahal, other works of Mughal architecture, and South Indian architecture, blends ancient local traditions with imported styles. Vernacular architecture is also regional in its flavours. Vastu shastra, literally "science of construction" or "architecture" and ascribed to Mamuni Mayan, explores how the laws of nature affect human dwellings; it employs precise geometry and directional alignments to reflect perceived cosmic constructs. As applied in Hindu temple architecture, it is influenced by the Shilpa Shastras, a series of foundational texts whose basic mythological form is the Vastu-Purusha mandala, a square that embodied the "absolute". The Taj Mahal, built in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by orders of Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife, has been described in the UNESCO World Heritage List as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage". Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, developed by the British in the late 19th century, drew on Indo-Islamic architecture.

The earliest literature in India, composed between 1500 BCE and 1200 CE, was in the Sanskrit language. Major works of Sanskrit literature include the Rigveda (c. 1500 BCE – c. 1200 BCE), the epics: Mahābhārata ( c. 400 BCE – c. 400 CE) and the Ramayana ( c. 300 BCE and later); Abhijñānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Śakuntalā, and other dramas of Kālidāsa ( c. 5th century CE) and Mahākāvya poetry. In Tamil literature, the Sangam literature ( c. 600 BCE – c. 300 BCE) consisting of 2,381 poems, composed by 473 poets, is the earliest work. From the 14th to the 18th centuries, India's literary traditions went through a period of drastic change because of the emergence of devotional poets like Kabīr, Tulsīdās, and Guru Nānak. This period was characterised by a varied and wide spectrum of thought and expression; as a consequence, medieval Indian literary works differed significantly from classical traditions. In the 19th century, Indian writers took a new interest in social questions and psychological descriptions. In the 20th century, Indian literature was influenced by the works of the Bengali poet, author and philosopher Rabindranath Tagore, who was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Indian music ranges over various traditions and regional styles. Classical music encompasses two genres and their various folk offshoots: the northern Hindustani and southern Carnatic schools. Regionalised popular forms include filmi and folk music; the syncretic tradition of the bauls is a well-known form of the latter. Indian dance also features diverse folk and classical forms. Among the better-known folk dances are: the bhangra of Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the Jhumair and chhau of Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal, garba and dandiya of Gujarat, ghoomar of Rajasthan, and the lavani of Maharashtra. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniyattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, manipuri of Manipur, odissi of Odisha, and the sattriya of Assam.

Theatre in India melds music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue. Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowing from medieval romances or social and political events, Indian theatre includes: the bhavai of Gujarat, the jatra of West Bengal, the nautanki and ramlila of North India, tamasha of Maharashtra, burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh, terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu, and the yakshagana of Karnataka. India has a theatre training institute the National School of Drama (NSD) that is situated at New Delhi It is an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of Culture, Government of India. The Indian film industry produces the world's most-watched cinema. Established regional cinematic traditions exist in the Assamese, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi, Odia, Tamil, and Telugu languages. The Hindi language film industry (Bollywood) is the largest sector representing 43% of box office revenue, followed by the South Indian Telugu and Tamil film industries which represent 36% combined.

Television broadcasting began in India in 1959 as a state-run medium of communication and expanded slowly for more than two decades. The state monopoly on television broadcast ended in the 1990s. Since then, satellite channels have increasingly shaped the popular culture of Indian society. Today, television is the most penetrative media in India; industry estimates indicate that as of 2012 there are over 554 million TV consumers, 462 million with satellite or cable connections compared to other forms of mass media such as the press (350 million), radio (156 million) or internet (37 million).

Traditional Indian society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy. The Indian caste system embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in the Indian subcontinent. Social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed as jātis, or "castes". India declared untouchability to be illegal in 1947 and has since enacted other anti-discriminatory laws and social welfare initiatives.

Family values are important in the Indian tradition, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm in India, though nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas. An overwhelming majority of Indians, with their consent, have their marriages arranged by their parents or other family elders. Marriage is thought to be for life, and the divorce rate is extremely low, with less than one in a thousand marriages ending in divorce. Child marriages are common, especially in rural areas; many women wed before reaching 18, which is their legal marriageable age. Female infanticide in India, and lately female foeticide, have created skewed gender ratios; the number of missing women in the country quadrupled from 15 million to 63 million in the 50-year period ending in 2014, faster than the population growth during the same period, and constituting 20 percent of India's female electorate. Accord to an Indian government study, an additional 21 million girls are unwanted and do not receive adequate care. Despite a government ban on sex-selective foeticide, the practice remains commonplace in India, the result of a preference for boys in a patriarchal society. The payment of dowry, although illegal, remains widespread across class lines. Deaths resulting from dowry, mostly from bride burning, are on the rise, despite stringent anti-dowry laws.

Many Indian festivals are religious in origin. The best known include: Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Thai Pongal, Holi, Durga Puja, Eid ul-Fitr, Bakr-Id, Christmas, and Vaisakhi.

In the 2011 census, about 73% of the population was literate, with 81% for men and 65% for women. This compares to 1981 when the respective rates were 41%, 53% and 29%. In 1951 the rates were 18%, 27% and 9%. In 1921 the rates 7%, 12% and 2%. In 1891 they were 5%, 9% and 1%, According to Latika Chaudhary, in 1911 there were under three primary schools for every ten villages. Statistically, more caste and religious diversity reduced private spending. Primary schools taught literacy, so local diversity limited its growth.

Education system of India is the world's second largest higher education System. India had over 900 universities, 40,000 colleges and 1.5 million schools. In India's higher education system, a significant number of seats are reserved under affirmative action policies for the historically disadvantaged. In recent decades India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development.

The most widely worn traditional dress in India, for both women and men, from ancient times until the advent of modern times, was draped. For women it eventually took the form of a sari, a single long piece of cloth, famously six yards long, and of width spanning the lower body. The sari is tied around the waist and knotted at one end, wrapped around the lower body, and then over the shoulder. In its more modern form, it has been used to cover the head, and sometimes the face, as a veil. It has been combined with an underskirt, or Indian petticoat, and tucked in the waist band for more secure fastening, It is also commonly worn with an Indian blouse, or choli, which serves as the primary upper-body garment, the sari's end—passing over the shoulder—serving to obscure the upper body's contours and to cover the midriff.

For men, a similar but shorter length of cloth, the dhoti, has served as a lower-body garment. It too is tied around the waist and wrapped. In south India, it is usually wrapped around the lower body, the upper end tucked in the waistband, the lower left free. In addition, in northern India, it is also wrapped once around each leg before being brought up through the legs to be tucked in at the back. Other forms of traditional apparel that involve no stitching or tailoring are the chaddar (a shawl worn by both sexes to cover the upper body during colder weather, or a large veil worn by women for framing the head, or covering it) and the pagri (a turban or a scarf worn around the head as a part of a tradition, or to keep off the sun or the cold).

Until the beginning of the first millennium CE, the ordinary dress of people in India was entirely unstitched. The arrival of the Kushans from Central Asia, c. 48 CE, popularised cut and sewn garments in the style of Central Asian favoured by the elite in northern India. However, it was not until Muslim rule was established, first with the Delhi sultanate and then the Mughal Empire, that the range of stitched clothes in India grew and their use became significantly more widespread. Among the various garments gradually establishing themselves in northern India during medieval and early-modern times and now commonly worn are: the shalwars and pyjamas both forms of trousers, as well as the tunics kurta and kameez. In southern India, however, the traditional draped garments were to see much longer continuous use.

Shalwars are atypically wide at the waist but narrow to a cuffed bottom. They are held up by a drawstring or elastic belt, which causes them to become pleated around the waist. The pants can be wide and baggy, or they can be cut quite narrow, on the bias, in which case they are called churidars. The kameez is a long shirt or tunic. The side seams are left open below the waist-line,), which gives the wearer greater freedom of movement. The kameez is usually cut straight and flat; older kameez use traditional cuts; modern kameez are more likely to have European-inspired set-in sleeves. The kameez may have a European-style collar, a Mandarin-collar, or it may be collarless; in the latter case, its design as a women's garment is similar to a kurta. At first worn by Muslim women, the use of shalwar kameez gradually spread, making them a regional style, especially in the Punjab region.

A kurta, which traces its roots to Central Asian nomadic tunics, has evolved stylistically in India as a garment for everyday wear as well as for formal occasions. It is traditionally made of cotton or silk; it is worn plain or with embroidered decoration, such as chikan; and it can be loose or tight in the torso, typically falling either just above or somewhere below the wearer's knees. The sleeves of a traditional kurta fall to the wrist without narrowing, the ends hemmed but not cuffed; the kurta can be worn by both men and women; it is traditionally collarless, though standing collars are increasingly popular; and it can be worn over ordinary pyjamas, loose shalwars, churidars, or less traditionally over jeans.

In the last 50 years, fashions have changed a great deal in India. Increasingly, in urban settings in northern India, the sari is no longer the apparel of everyday wear, transformed instead into one for formal occasions. The traditional shalwar kameez is rarely worn by younger women, who favour churidars or jeans. The kurtas worn by young men usually fall to the shins and are seldom plain. In white-collar office settings, ubiquitous air conditioning allows men to wear sports jackets year-round. For weddings and formal occasions, men in the middle- and upper classes often wear bandgala, or short Nehru jackets, with pants, with the groom and his groomsmen sporting sherwanis and churidars. The dhoti, the once universal garment of Hindu India, the wearing of which in the homespun and handwoven form of khadi allowed Gandhi to bring Indian nationalism to the millions, is seldom seen in the cities, reduced now, with brocaded border, to the liturgical vestments of Hindu priests.

Indian cuisine consists of a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines. Given the range of diversity in soil type, climate, culture, ethnic groups, and occupations, these cuisines vary substantially from each other, using locally available spices, herbs, vegetables, and fruit. Indian foodways have been influenced by religion, in particular Hindu cultural choices and traditions. They have been also shaped by Islamic rule, particularly that of the Mughals, by the arrival of the Portuguese on India's southwestern shores, and by British rule. These three influences are reflected, respectively, in the dishes of pilaf and biryani; the vindaloo; and the tiffin and the Railway mutton curry. Earlier, the Columbian exchange had brought the potato, the tomato, maize, peanuts, cashew nuts, pineapples, guavas, and most notably, chilli peppers, to India. Each became staples of use. In turn, the spice trade between India and Europe was a catalyst for Europe's Age of Discovery.

The cereals grown in India, their choice, times, and regions of planting, correspond strongly to the timing of India's monsoons, and the variation across regions in their associated rainfall. In general, the broad division of cereal zones in India, as determined by their dependence on rain, was firmly in place before the arrival of artificial irrigation. Rice, which requires a lot of water, has been grown traditionally in regions of high rainfall in the northeast and the western coast, wheat in regions of moderate rainfall, like India's northern plains, and millet in regions of low rainfall, such as on the Deccan Plateau and in Rajasthan.

The foundation of a typical Indian meal is a cereal cooked in plain fashion, and complemented with flavourful savoury dishes. The latter includes lentils, pulses and vegetables spiced commonly with ginger and garlic, but also more discerningly with a combination of spices that may include coriander, cumin, turmeric, cinnamon, cardamon and others as informed by culinary conventions. In an actual meal, this mental representation takes the form of a platter, or thali, with a central place for the cooked cereal, peripheral ones, often in small bowls, for the flavourful accompaniments, and the simultaneous, rather than piecemeal, ingestion of the two in each act of eating, whether by actual mixing—for example of rice and lentils—or in the folding of one—such as bread—around the other, such as cooked vegetables.

A notable feature of Indian food is the existence of a number of distinctive vegetarian cuisines, each a feature of the geographical and cultural histories of its adherents. The appearance of ahimsa, or the avoidance of violence toward all forms of life in many religious orders early in Indian history, especially Upanishadic Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, is thought to have been a notable factor in the prevalence of vegetarianism among a segment of India's Hindu population, especially in southern India, Gujarat, and the Hindi-speaking belt of north-central India, as well as among Jains. Among these groups, strong discomfort is felt at thoughts of eating meat, and contributes to the low proportional consumption of meat to overall diet in India. Unlike China, which has increased its per capita meat consumption substantially in its years of increased economic growth, in India the strong dietary traditions have contributed to dairy, rather than meat, becoming the preferred form of animal protein consumption accompanying higher economic growth.

In the last millennium, the most significant import of cooking techniques into India occurred during the Mughal Empire. The cultivation of rice had spread much earlier from India to Central and West Asia; however, it was during Mughal rule that dishes, such as the pilaf, developed in the interim during the Abbasid caliphate, and cooking techniques such as the marinating of meat in yogurt, spread into northern India from regions to its northwest. To the simple yogurt marinade of Persia, onions, garlic, almonds, and spices began to be added in India. Rice grown to the southwest of the Mughal capital, Agra, which had become famous in the Islamic world for its fine grain, was partially cooked and layered alternately with the sauteed meat, the pot sealed tightly, and slow cooked according to another Persian cooking technique, to produce what has today become the Indian biryani, a feature of festive dining in many parts of India. In food served in restaurants in urban north India, and internationally, the diversity of Indian food has been partially concealed by the dominance of Punjabi cuisine. This was caused in large part by an entrepreneurial response among people from the Punjab region who had been displaced by the 1947 partition of India, and had arrived in India as refugees. The identification of Indian cuisine with the tandoori chicken—cooked in the tandoor oven, which had traditionally been used for baking bread in the rural Punjab and the Delhi region, especially among Muslims, but which is originally from Central Asia—dates to this period.

Cricket is the most popular sport in India. Major domestic competitions include the Indian Premier League, which is the most-watched cricket league in the world and ranks sixth among all sports leagues.

Several traditional indigenous sports remain fairly popular, such as kabaddi, kho kho, pehlwani and gilli-danda. Some of the earliest forms of Asian martial arts, such as Kalarippayattu, musti yuddha, silambam, and marma adi, originated in India. Chess, commonly held to have originated in India as chaturaṅga, is regaining widespread popularity with the rise in the number of Indian grandmasters. Pachisi, from which parcheesi derives, was played on a giant marble court by Akbar.

The improved results garnered by the Indian Davis Cup team and other Indian tennis players in the early 2010s have made tennis increasingly popular in the country. India has a comparatively strong presence in shooting sports, and has won several medals at the Olympics, the World Shooting Championships, and the Commonwealth Games. Other sports in which Indians have succeeded internationally include badminton (Saina Nehwal and P V Sindhu are two of the top-ranked female badminton players in the world), boxing, and wrestling. Football is popular in West Bengal, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and the north-eastern states.

India has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events: the 1951 and 1982 Asian Games; the 1987, 1996, and 2011 Cricket World Cup tournaments; the 2003 Afro-Asian Games; the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy; the 2010 Hockey World Cup; the 2010 Commonwealth Games; and the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup. Major international sporting events held annually in India include the Chennai Open, the Mumbai Marathon, the Delhi Half Marathon, and the Indian Masters. The first Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix featured in late 2011 but has been discontinued from the F1 season calendar since 2014. India has traditionally been the dominant country at the South Asian Games. An example of this dominance is the basketball competition where the Indian team won three out of four tournaments to date.







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Coordinates: 21°N 78°E / 21°N 78°E / 21; 78

@Bewakoof_IN @DisneyIndia @Marvel_India @MrPRATEEK24 @Nisha_Davera @GoswamiArnabRpt #RIPBlackPanther #ActOfGod #2020worstyear
Tributes to the great Bapu on his Punya Tithi. His ideals continue to motivate millions. On Martyrs’ Day we recal…
Let international film makers know. This is New India. These are new Roads and these are our Farmers. Times are cha…
Um ano após a viagem do PR @jairbolsonaro à Nova Délhi como convidado especial do Dia da República da Índia e pouco…
Can’t believe this man was the Vice President Of India! एहसानफ़रामोश
India needs immediate economic as well as structural reforms. We need to cut down on the fiscal deficit, move our l…
RT @MayankVermaIITD: Don't miss the webinar "Manufacturing Transformations of Indian MSMEs to Industry 4.0" on 30th Jan 2021 at 12:30 pm Re…
RT @TimesNow: We have thanked Prime Minister @NarendraModi for the initiative he has to resolve the stalemate. We will never defame India's…
RT @GopaliyaKapil: India does not like your work. You doing #MannKiBakwaas continually.. Only Listen #MannKiBaat of corporates not public..…
RT @firdzaradiany: India (populasi 1,3 milyar) berhasil menurunkan kurva pandemi. Bagaimana cara India Flattening The Curve? - India laku…
RT @ZeeNews: #BREAKING: ममता बनर्जी अकेली रह जाएंगी- अमित शाह @AmitShah Watch-
RT @soldierspeaks: India's move on article 370 is "illegal and invalid" says China which is moving to create an alliance with Pakistan. Ind…
RT @loosebool: #Flashback 7 foreign correspondents were expelled and 29 others were banned from entering India. The Centre withdrew accred…
RT @anujdhar: While everyone tried everything, finally it took #SubhashChandraBose to free India. Hear it loud and clear, this is Dr BR Amb…
#JusticeForKashmir International laws violated by India through abrogating article 370 and 35A, use of force and v…
RT @r_gov11: Public universities in India will now have to seek government permission to host international conferences. And the topic cann…
#MamataBanerjee सरकार पर बरसे गृहमंत्री @amitshah #WestBengal #India #Politics
RT @HemantP57063386: A very nice step by @manipurmygov most State & Central Govt want to punish men without detailed trial under #FakeCases…
RT @PreetKGillMP: Riot police attempt to clear farmers from Delhi camp. Many detained under draconian anti-terrorism laws. Police reports a…
RT @ROUBLENAGI: हमारे संस्कार ही हमारी पहचान है !! मानवता को हमेशा ऊपर रखे यही हम हिंदुस्तानियों की शान है !! #humanity #love #respect #In…
RT @its_GmS: #DisInfoLabDestroyedIndia Security Council and the Organization of Islamic Countries claiming that it had “irrefutable eviden…
RT @anujdhar: While everyone tried everything, finally it took #SubhashChandraBose to free India. Hear it loud and clear, this is Dr BR Amb…
Rajneeti News (UN chief lauds India's COVID-19 vaccine assistance to nations) India has airlifted more than 6 mi…
Singapore possibly has the largest “Little India” outside India.
@india_barton Awsome! I always wanted to learn, but I don't know where to start. What do you recomend me?
RT @AJEnglish: "To protest is our right, and no one can stop us." India's farmers are staging a hunger strike in protest at new agricultur…
3) A Pfizer procurador o Brasil em agosto do ano passado para ofertar a vacina. O governo ASSUMIU que de fato receb…
RT @paolavalenti29: In India, al lockdown gliel' hanno messo in quel posto. Danno le cure e girano liberi Hanno raggiunto immunità di greg…
RT @filgmartin: Um ano após a viagem do PR @jairbolsonaro à Nova Délhi como convidado especial do Dia da República da Índia e poucos dias a…
@Kicillofok nos boludearon a todos y no hay mas vacunas, chantas.
The ruined famous Buddhist Vikramshila University at kahalgawn, Bhagalpur in Bihar, India. It was founded in 8th ce…
@el_ignatuis @HomoSapienser @RA56355163 @BigTurknut @chvnburi The British drew most modern borders of day, whats yo…
RT @a_alragam: Women Architects and Modernism in India Narratives and Contemporary Practices - Madhavi Desai "This book attempts to recove…
RT @Abhay_journo: उप्र की मुजफ्फरनगर पुलिस ने गुंडों के खिलाफ कार्रवाई करने के बजाए उन्हें चौकी से ही छोड़ दिया. बेख़ौफ़ गुंडों ने युवक को…
@MarioManei @india_barton
RT @sukhkaurrr: Farmers lives are important. Sikh lives are important. Punjabi lives are important. If you didn’t know peaceful protesters…
Pensé que los videos de esa gente en la India habían desaparecido 😖
@sharonlawrence @_GouravAdarsh @ava @ARRAYNow @netflix @priyankachopra @RajkummarRao Thank you for such a great per…
RT @_SJPeace_: “They can hit us with whatever they want, we will keep fighting for our rights” A cow is more safer in India than a Sikh fa…
RT @agriprof: If you only read Twitter & watch MSM, you have no idea what is about to happen between USA, CCP, Taiwan, India and Russia.
Forget putting cash in the hands of people, Modi Govt plans to handover India's assets to his crony capitalist friends. #Budget2021
In 🇺🇲 America, @Twitter blocks a US President's Account for telling LIES. In 🇮🇳 India, @TwitterIndia blocks the Ac…
In it together. Made in India vaccines land in Johannesburg, South Africa. #VaccineMaitri
RT @vampcorpsecult: We only gonna go up!!!! Agoraphobic in Viral 50 India 🌧️🖤 @Corpse_Husband
RT @rajnish1Midas: #Budget2021 Invest in India is the best investment for the world today. India has changed it's attitude & is changing g…
पहले जान , फिर जहाँ । एक शानदार और ऐतिहासिक बजट के लिए आभार ⁦@ianuragthakur⁩ जी 🙏
@HardeepSPuri @PMOIndia @MoHUA_India @PIB_India @amrut_MoHUA Dear sir Please india to Saudi Arabia Air bubbles agreement karein
RT @AkshayKatariyaa: GDP 2.87 lakh crores USD in Ram’s India. 3,064.14 crores USD in Sita’s Nepal. 8,400.88 crores USD in Ravan’s Lanka. W…
RT @INCIndia: On her birth anniversary, we pay tribute to Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, the first Health Minister of India, and the first woman and…
RT @AkshayaPatra: On January 14, the Hon'ble Defence Minister of India, Shri @rajnathsingh toured Akshaya Patra's HK Hill Kitchen in Rajaji…
RT @jay_kotakone: Cases in India are down from ~100k a day in September to 8.6k Deaths: 1,250 to 94 Case positivity/test: 10% to 1% Deaths…
RT @Ar45352: @Ar45352 @As258033 @Shivani3535 @ArpnIn @Gs9430 @Cute_Neha94 @EAK_india @STiwari108 @Devta55 @ANC0101 @BrandNitin @ErShashtri…
@vdsharmabjp @vdsharmabjp Jis Prakar madhyapradesh mein sports Mein top Karne Wale Ko police mai job mil rahi hai…
RT @GuwahatiNpc: #onlinelearning #February2021 on #Industry40 for #Startups & #DataScience #postcovid #Careers. @AIUIndia @aiai_india @AICT…
RT @KobiriiF: South African journalists were yesterday tracking a plane bringing vaccines from India. In Zimbabwe we are still waiting for…
RT @idpindia: Fulfil your dream of studying in one of the prominent institutions of the USA which boasts of impeccable academic record and…
RT @ndtvindia: #FarmersProtest | राहुल गांधी ने सरकार को दीवार नहीं बल्कि पुल बनाने का सुझाव दिया
RT @gautambhatia88: Some good news coming out of the Supreme Court today. In Union of India v K.A. Najeeb, the Court has clarified that mer…
RT @Vedprakash26493: @FranckenTheo Profetie van Nostradamus over Saint Rampal Ji Maharaj. De redders die in india zullen verschijnen, zull…
RT @TajinderBagga: You don't know about India's Map and interfering in our internal issues. If I will start opening your interior issues it…
why aren’t we talking about this?! #FarmersProtest
We stand in solidarity with the #FarmersProtest in India.
India’s sovereignty cannot be compromised. External forces can be spectators but not participants. Indians know In…
India has always been stronger when we all stand together and finding a solution is the need of the hour. Our farme…
Happy to share that I’ve donated $10,000 to provide medical assistance to the farmers in need in India to help save…
RT @ARanganathan72: Just phenomenal, the detailing and effort that went into making that Anarchist 'Breaking India' Tool Kit. Hope our Inte…
RT @irisckp: Please sign this in regards to the #FarmersProtest in India. Please remember when signing that a threat to the right to prote…
RT @arjunsethi81: Can you feel it? The entire world is watching India.
RT @arjunsethi81: With every day that passes, more and more people are waking up to the reality that India has become an authoritarian stat…
RT @TeamJuJu: Happy to share that I’ve donated $10,000 to provide medical assistance to the farmers in need in India to help save lives dur…
@anjanaomkashyap You have truly disappointed our nation. Maybe one day you will look back and realise you were on t…
RT @ShashiTharoor: For GoI to get Indian celebrities to react to Western ones is embarrassing. The damage done to India's global image by G…
RT @thecaravanindia: Replug | Sangh activists demolished the Babri Masjid in 1992, setting off communal violence across India. The same yea…
RT @corbyn_project: A quarter of a billion Indian workers - 1 in every 30 people on Earth - have been on strike. They've held firm against…
@MoosewalaBani @rihanna India has enough food growing some exported some consumed in India. 2 Trillion dollars eco…
@chaerscals russia? wait no india? maybe china? idk
Certney told India and I to go where the love is in 2015 and it really has stuck with me ever since. It’s simple but I just love that saying
RT @tribunemagazine: India's farmer protests are mounting a major challenge to the Modi regime - and the violence deployed in response show…
RT @mani262002: @kamalsinghbrar @Minniie_Mehra #FarmersProtest Please Sign the Petitions for Farmers
RT @clary_co: In related news, India has summoned Rihanna's ambassador to New Delhi to protest the singer's "unacceptable interference" in…
RT @sudhirchaudhary: Document shared by @GretaThunberg ,now deleted. Read the dangerous & divisive conspiracy to defame India and its democ…
RT @GurpreetSSahota: Colin Kaepernick @Kaepernick7 Please support our farmers right to peacefully protest in India and raise awareness of t…
Modi’s crony centric budget means- Struggling MSMEs given no low interest loans, no GST relief. The employers of…
India: Protect press freedom for journalists covering the #FarmersProtest
RT @RaviSinghKA: Burning effigies and threatening women who are posting in support for the #Farmers , welcome to the new intolerant India !…
RT @Profdilipmandal: 2.20 Lakh tweets and still counting. Today’s biggest trend in India. #आरक्षण_बचाओ
RT @CyrilRamaphosa: I spoke to the Prime Minister of India, His Excellency @NarendraModi this afternoon following the arrival of the first…
@Siddhar93177626 @TThakurayan @rihanna My dear, I want know, she is justice of India? Why we will give any internal…
@VPrasadMDMPH @medpagetoday This was a really good read....the section on safety nets/resources really resonated…
RT @timesofindia: Meenakshi Lekhi mocks Greta Thunberg, says India should give her child bravery award
RT @sanjeevsanyal:
@carloss31849327 hay una cosa bonita, te avisan de bancos y cajas en donde ni pisas q te caducan las tarjetas y no…
RT @GK17_99: Idk why @TheDailyShow hasn’t covered any of the protests in India. Sure hope @LastWeekTonight doesn’t ignore it too smh
RT @ICC: The ICC Player of the Month nominee for January, @root66, has been labelled as an "impact player" by India skipper @imVkohli. Doe…
@siobhanheanue Thank you for putting it out there. Love from India ❤️
RT @vxvlxn: Imagine working a Black Friday shift for 12 hours and the company believes that your labor & the sales you made are only worth…
@YogesVashist @BqwW2pJAGZW272J @KanganaTeam Did you highlight #Arnabgate , military secrets being leaked, Jawan dea…
@ShazCoder @kevtellier @Jonatha55643390 @EconWanabe This isn’t turning out to be the grand Western alliance against…
@Atemkristall @simonharley @GilesMacDonogh Try as hard as you can, you won’t establish moral equivalence between th…
RT @gianthealthevnt: CAREMARQ is a #healthtech company based out of Mumbai, India & aims to connect the fragmented medical community with t…
@GretaThunberg Never do things under some instigation ,understand before revolt , don’t spoil your parents and teac…
Modi’s crony centric budget means- Jawans facing Chinese aggression in extreme conditions will get no support. I…
RT @BobBlackman: There has been much social media coverage around the #FarmersProtest in #India. Very useful guide to the legislation and t…
RT @BobBlackman: Further guidance on the changes to #farminglaws in #India 2/2
Delhi Police write to Google, seek data on toolkit shared by Greta Thunberg
RT @jimmurphySF: India: Protect press freedom for journalists covering the #FarmersProtest
RT @BobBlackman: There has been much social media coverage around the #FarmersProtest in #India. Very useful guide to the legislation and t…
RT @panjab_tweets: @UNHumanRights Thank you @UNHumanRights, the inhumane actions constituting police brutality and state terrorism in India…
@DoJ_India @ahqgqvqhsis @indSupremeCourt @LiveLawIndia @KLJICO Just like christian burial sacrament, qurbana als…
RT @reachind_uk: Gr8 inference by @kajal_jaihind 1) @narendramodi ji is man of “Action”as we all #Indians know & 2) comparison with #bha…
RT @BobBlackman: There has been much social media coverage around the #FarmersProtest in #India. Very useful guide to the legislation and t…
RT @RiseofBurnol: @india_logic @BearGrylls @sudhirchaudhary @Discovery Thanks to Terr0r nation Pakistan!!
@RahulGandhi @INCKerala Bhai samaj nahi haata ek baar bolta army Navy Air Force jaruri nai fir kuch hor bokta...Isl…
RT @ajplus: An estimated 250 million workers went on strike in India in November, the largest in world history. @vijayprashad breaks down…
RT @SandraWeeden: Oh dear, India not recommending Pfizer. 🤔 ‘experts did not recommend the vaccine because of side effects reported abroad…
RT @rihanna: why aren’t we talking about this?! #FarmersProtest
RT @alonerahul6000: I am a citizen of India. And I am with my country. I fully support my government. #UniteAgainstKhalistan
@GurratanSingh When will khalistanis realise that this is not india of 1980s
RT @OnlyNakedTruth: This is telling. India asked for extra data, first they stopped showing up for meetings and now they have withdrawn the…
In the last few years, hate has been normalised so much that even our beloved sport cricket has been marred by it.…
Did you know? Today is the Birth Anniversary of the brave son of India, Col B Santosh Babu. Salute to the Bravehear…
I bow down to the brave martyrs who lost their lives in the gruesome Pulwama attack on this day in 2019. India wil…
The toss was more important to win in the 1st test than this one, as it did nothing the 1st 2 days. Then exploded.…
RT @DocGauhar: @drgaursaurabh @docdilipmishra @Rahul79307822 @drkarthicknagan @dravinashsingh @drragoori @drashishtyagi14 @toshutosh @drkem…
RT @sonmishr: #AsimSquad twitter added caption to our trend Chocolate boy heathrob of India is trending ❤️ @imrealasim BE MY VALENTINE AS…
RT @OpIndia_com: How Modi govt raced against time to crack down on Chinese apps amid China's aggression in Ladakh
RT @mac_thimmaiah: Wasim Jaffer who is accused of promoting religion in game should not be questioned since he wore tricolour on his chest…
RT @UshaNirmala: Did you know this? India is building a 50,000 acre mega drip irrigation project in the state of AP. Imagine when 5 lacs h…
RT @GuruGujarati: देशके सबसे प्रामाणिक, कर्तव्यपरायण, मेहनती और देशके विकास की नींव डालनेवाले वर्ग के पेट पर ही हर बार छूरीयाँ क्यों चलाई…
RT @IamAsimRiaz07: " BE MY VALENTINE ASIM " Is trending at No. 7 in India with 28.3K tweets !!! Girls enjoying this trend & keep trending…
RT @Ag77An: @China_Amb_India @MFA_China @PDChina @XHNews @globaltimesnews @HuXijin_GT @chinaorgcn @ftchina @ReutersChina @TibetPeople @majo…
RT @the_hindu: The reality is that, in the last six years, it has become almost impossible for the average citizen to crack a joke. It’s as…
RT @KP24: Such a brave wicket to prepare for a Test match IN India when India are down in the series. If India had lost the toss, they’d…
@MichaelVaughan When our team visits England your curators made any spin tracks on the same pitch Root hit a double…
RT @Sumanta08982801: Cooch Behar Panchanan Barma University is the only single university in Cooch Behar. it is a U.G.C. recognised public…
RT @iMac_too: Remember Caravan handle is still not banned by Twitter despite "stern" orders by Govt of India
RT @Athersmike: Reality bites, as have India’s spinners. Pant, Ashwin and Foakes outstanding today. Pitch very tricky but worth repeating p…
@kavita_krishnan @gpradeepshenoy2 @GretaThunberg What about the yoga and chai image of India line mentioned in the toolkit ?
Its important. Need to set India on the path of Hygiene and nutritions.... #reacheachchild
@ThisisOshaz_ Abdul Karim is a clerk from India who is selected to present a coin to Queen Victoria during Golden J…
RT @WatDaDuck_: Left wing believes you can't be anti-Modi without being anti-India.
RT @mamaearthindia: @Karishma20201 @ishehnaaz_gill @sidharth_shukla Hum abhi outside India ship nahi krtey hai par aap Amazon se order kar…
RT @meganrowling: Indian #climate activist, Disha Ravi, aged 22, has been arrested after sharing a document intended to help farmers protes…
RT @Profdilipmandal: सरकार के शरीर के पिछले हिस्से में आग लग गई है। राष्ट्रीय पिछड़ा वर्ग आयोग ने सरकार को नोटिस भेजा है कि बिना रिज़र्वेशन…
RT @stpiguwahati: Opportunity for global #investors to invest in India. Capital gains have been exempted for #investment in #startups till…
RT @VTG_SSR: SHOCKED🙄 Listen to the knowledge of farmers Protesting against farm laws. God! And they are trending #IndiaBeingSilenced The…
RT @Lizgottik: Ya vimos que si le importamos al Presidente.... pero de la India 🇮🇳, a este le valemos m@dre.
RT @PCheppudira: @ArvindKejriwal Fantastic work, by police ... a 22 year old English educated Urban Naxaal having no sense of respect for n…
RT @SevadalGA: Let us pledge that We will fight unitedly to protect the Democracy of the Country.Connecting to Congress Social media is ver…
RT @meenal_tatpati: These young people are fighting for our right to a good life too! Here's hoping we understand what is happening! #Free…
RT @RahulRajput012: -29 अंक आये है फिर व्याख्यता पद पर चयन 😡 फिर हम क्यो ना करे आरक्षण का विरोध बताओ ₹2 वालों ❓ 👇 #India_Against_Reservatio…
RT @AJITHFC_CUD: #Valimai Fever STARTS...👊🏻 Good Morning AJITHians Trending in INDIA TRENDS...👑 @BoneyKapoor Ji Waiting For Your Tweet…
RT @_Im_suraj_: I found why everyone are talking about #Pitch . Pitch for India vs Pitch for England #INDvsEND
India is so awake now that all this petty propaganda and agenda like “age 21” is shot by normal people... FCUK anti…
RT @GauravPandhi: Those who have wanted to silence India, have been silenced themselves & lost in history. #IndiaBeingSilenced
RT @goelgauravbjp: . @dhruv_rathee and other paid media gang is completely exposed now by @StringReveals as how they were conspiring agains…
RT @rlda_india: Ernakulam Railway station, one of the busiest railway stations of South India is all set to be redeveloped by RLDA into a w…
The 7 Most Beautiful Temples in India | Architectural Digest
backpacking india travel tips for first trip to India. backpacking south asia. kerala india. best places to visit in india. best things to do in india
India has been on my bucket list for years and last December I had the great pleasure of partially crossing it off my list with a visit to Jaipur. Abe and I went in celebration…
Holi festival, India. Click pin through to post for info on how to find the best information on world festivals and events!
India, rajaahstan
Majestic Indian elephant
Jaipur, India: The Amber Fort is impressive
Decorated arches in Jaipur
The cremation ghats in Varanasi. Hindus consider it auspicious to die and be cremated in Varanasi as it breaks the cycle of death and rebirth. Read more about things to do in Varanasi in my travel guide.
Magical Taj Mahal Agra, India Located in the city of Agra, in the north-Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, it is a striking testament to love and devotion. With numerous decorative details and beautiful green grounds, the Taj Mahal is a veritable visual feast. Referred to as the “Jewel of Muslim art in India” by UNESCO, see for yourself what makes the Taj Mahal, the Crown of Palaces, so special. @maizycolleen
Culture Shock in India: How to Cope on your India Trip. | Soul Travel
Holy Cows In India. I can tell you that my trip to India wouldn’t have been as much fun without numerous one-on-ones with holy cows. They certainly played a huge role in my navigating my way around Indian cities.
The ancient city of Bagan in Myanmar is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. #unesco #worldheritage #myanmar #bagan #asia #travel
An ancient city on the shores of the Ganges, it is a religious centre for Hindus and tourists alike to visit and see the culture
Honestly WTF - A daily dose of fashion discoveries and inspirations, contributed by a stylist and a designer who both see the world through rose-colored shades.
India, Rajaahstan
The Golden Temple, Amritsar, India
Things to do in Udaipur You MUST NOT MISS: How to Have the Best Time in My Favorite City in India - Hippie In Heels
15 Best Things To Do In Mumbai, India (5) India | Travel Destinations | Honeymoon | Backpack | Backpacking | Vacation South Asia | Budget | Off the Beaten Path | Trekking | Bucket List | Wanderlust | Things to Do and See | Culture | Food | Tourism | Like a Local | #travel #vacation #backpacking #budgettravel #offthebeatenpath #bucketlist #wanderlust #India #Asia #southasia #exploreIndia #visitIndia #seeIndia #discoverIndia #TravelIndia
Majestic Indian elephant
Taj Mahal at sunrise - Agra, India. Repinned by
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Jun 22, 2020 08:33
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Jun 22, 2020 08:33
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Jun 22, 2020 08:33
🅷🅰🅿🅿🆈 🅱🅸🆁🆃🅷🅳🅰🆈 🆅🅸🅹🅰🆈 . . Use Headphones 🎧 . . ചുമ്മാ ഒന്ന് കയറി നോക്ക് ഇഷ്ട്ടപെട്ടാൽ കൂടെകൂടിക്കോ... 😘 Post ഇഷ്ടമായാൽ ഷെയർ ചെയ്യണേ... . Watch till end❤🔥💯 . Stay tuned for daily track...🎼 . Do follow for more updates👇 . Follow:@shad_ow_beats . Use the hashtag #shadow_beats . Thanks for watching Keep supporting,Keep loving,Keep sharing Love you all❤ Like| Comment |Share . (If any credit issues Dm📩me) . This video and audio is not owned by ourselves the copy right credit goes to respective owners.This video is not used for illegal sharing or profit making.This video is purely fanmade,if any problem please message to @shad_ow_beats and the video will immediately romoved.NO need to sent a strike.Thank you...🙏🏻🙏🏻 . ⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬ . [Use insta downloader app to download this video] . ⏫⏫⏫⏫⏫⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬⏬ . . #shadow_beats #statuswhatsapp  #trolls#malayalamstatusvideo #kl58 #funnytrolls #live #love #laugh #justtrolls #trollkerala #india #kerala #kannur #kerala #readandlaugh #staypositive #keralaentertainment #trollsonly #trending #karikku #kerala #keralamallus #toller #trollofficial #tollyclub #tollersofinstagram #vijaythalapathy#thalapathyvijay #trollmovies_suggestions#thalapathy #malayalamstatusvideos #trending
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Jun 22, 2020 08:33
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Jun 22, 2020 08:33
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Jun 22, 2020 08:33
Follow Me Guys🔥🔥💦💦💋💋💋 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. #kerala #india #malayalam #mallu #godsowncountry #photography #kochi #keralagram #love #instagram #instagood #keralagodsowncountry #keralatourism #malayali #munaftamboli #mumbai #munaftambolifc #malappuram #kozhikode #kannur #mallugram @rsvasava_official07 #instagood #mollywood #trivandrum #travelphotography #keralagram #naturephotography #bhfyp #pinterest #entekeralam #photography #picoftheday #picoftheday #gainwithmchina
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Jun 22, 2020 08:33
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Jun 22, 2020 08:33
😍 व्याघ्रेश्वर धबधबा 😍 ========================== ✓ Follow Us @ aapl_devgad Tag Us @aapl_devgad ✓ Use Hashtag #aapl_devgad =========================== Follow करा. 🤞 Share करा. 📲 Likes ❤/Comments 🤞करा. तुम्ही काढलेले फोटो 📸/ विडीओ 📷 असतील तर आम्हाला पाठवा 💌📩 @aapl_devgad page ला नक्की post केले जातील.. धन्यवाद ❤❤❤ #aapl_devgad #kokanmemes #goshtakokanatali #koakanchi_mansa_sadhi_bholi #kokan_gram #kokan_ek_safaer #kokan_maza_gav #hrudaysparshi_kokan #kokani_mulga #kokanmemes #kokanchi_shan #kokani_status #aaplo_kokan #aamhi_malvani #kokan_bhumi #kokanatil_goshti #ek_gadi_sawantwadi #kokaneksundarnagari #laksh_kokan #nisarga_kokanche #kokan_kinara #kokandarshan1 #ek_kokankar #kokansya #ratnagiri #sindhudurg #devgad #maharashtra #india 🇮🇳.
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Jun 22, 2020 08:33
Reality 💯 . @insta_mystery789 #instamystery Text your experience in comments box👇 and please... Don't forget to follow dude... . •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ➡️@insta_mystery789⬅️ ➡️@insta_mystery789⬅️ ➡️@insta_mystery789⬅️ •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• . . #instagram #instagood #memesbrasileiros #memeita #memeindonesia #memeita #memestagram #pictureoftheday #capture #captions #follow4followback #following #followers #photography #jaipur #likeforlikes #likes #look #memes #india #uk #london #quotes #information #meme #dankmemes #memes😂 #memesdaily #memesespañol #memepage
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Jun 22, 2020 08:33
In Frame @jitendra.jkcreations @_swastikmishra_ Follow @gill.raw . . #landscapephotography #love #street #nightphoto #longexpo #nightscape #architecture #art #sunset #canonphotography #nightlights #nightshooters #d #beautiful #of #moonlight #urbanphotography #mobilephotography #india #shotz #cityscape #captures #mm #like #longexposurephotography #nightimages #lightpainting #nightshot #sonyalpha #photoshoot
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